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Grand Rounds—March 9th, 2018

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30 papers 0 to 25 followers Vigilance Versus Distraction in the Operating Room
D Dawson, K Reid
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 1997: Nature
Mathias Basner, Emanuel Hermosillo, Jad Nasrini, Sarah McGuire, Salil Saxena, Tyler M Moore, Ruben C Gur, David F Dinges
Study Objectives: The Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT) is reported to be free of practice effects that can otherwise confound the effects of sleep loss and circadian misalignment on performance. This differentiates the PVT from more complex cognitive tests. To the best of our knowledge, no study has systematically investigated practice effects on the PVT across multiple outcome domains, depending on administration interval, and in ecologically more valid settings. Methods: We administered a validated 3-minute PVT (PVT-B) 16 times in 45 participants (23 male, mean ± SD age 32...
January 1, 2018: Sleep
Jason M Slagle, Eric S Porterfield, Amanda N Lorinc, David Afshartous, Matthew S Shotwell, Matthew B Weinger
BACKGROUND: When workload is low, anesthesia providers may perform non-patient care activities of a clinical, educational, or personal nature. Data are limited on the incidence or impact of distractions on actual care. We examined the prevalence of self-initiated nonclinical distractions and their effects on anesthesia workload, vigilance, and the occurrence of nonroutine events. METHODS: In 319 qualifying cases in an academic medical center using a Web-based electronic medical chart, a trained observer recorded video and performed behavioral task analysis...
January 2018: Anesthesiology
Cui Yang, Julia Heinze, Jens Helmert, Juergen Weitz, Christoph Reissfelder, Soeren Torge Mees
BACKGROUND: Distractions such as phone calls during laparoscopic surgery play an important role in many operating rooms. The aim of this single-centre, prospective study was to assess if laparoscopic performance is impaired by intraoperative phone calls in novice surgeons. METHODS: From October 2015 to June 2016, 30 novice surgeons (medical students) underwent a laparoscopic surgery training curriculum including two validated tasks (peg transfer, precision cutting) until achieving a defined level of proficiency...
December 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
Brid O'Brien, Tom Andrews, Eileen Savage
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To explore and explain how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting. BACKGROUND: Perioperative nurses care for patients who are having surgery or other invasive explorative procedures. Perioperative care is increasingly focused on how to improve patient safety. Safety and risk management is a global priority for health services in reducing risk. Many studies have explored safety within the healthcare settings. However, little is known about how nurses minimise risk in the perioperative setting...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
M D Rosenberg, E S Finn, D Scheinost, R T Constable, M M Chun
Recent work shows that models based on functional connectivity in large-scale brain networks can predict individuals' attentional abilities. While being some of the first generalizable neuromarkers of cognitive function, these models also inform our basic understanding of attention, providing empirical evidence that: (i) attention is a network property of brain computation; (ii) the functional architecture that underlies attention can be measured while people are not engaged in any explicit task; and (iii) this architecture supports a general attentional ability that is common to several laboratory-based tasks and is impaired in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
April 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Jung-Hoon Kim, Do-Won Kim, Chang-Hwan Im
Vigilance, sometimes referred to as sustained attention, is an important type of human attention as it is closely associated with cognitive activities required in various daily-life situations. Although many researchers have investigated which brain areas control the maintenance of vigilance, findings have been inconsistent. We hypothesized that this inconsistency might be due to the use of different experimental paradigms in the various studies. We found that most of the previous studies used paradigms that included specific cognitive tasks requiring a high cognitive load, which could complicate identification of brain areas associated only with vigilance...
May 2017: Brain Topography
Elise Demeter, Marty G Woldorff
Distracting stimuli in the environment can pull our attention away from our goal-directed tasks. fMRI studies have implicated regions in right frontal cortex as being particularly important for processing distractors [e.g., de Fockert, J. W., & Theeuwes, J. Role of frontal cortex in attentional capture by singleton distractors. Brain and Cognition, 80, 367-373, 2012; Demeter, E., Hernandez-Garcia, L., Sarter, M., & Lustig, C. Challenges to attention: A continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) study of the effects of distraction on sustained attention...
July 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Richard H Epstein, Franklin Dexter, Neil Patel
In this review article, we address issues related to using data from anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) to deliver near real-time alerts via AIMS workstation popups and/or alphanumeric pagers and post hoc reports via e-mail. We focus on reports and alerts for influencing the behavior of anesthesia providers (i.e., anesthesiologists, anesthesia residents, and nurse anesthetists). Multiple studies have shown that anesthesia clinical decision support (CDS) improves adherence to protocols and increases financial performance through facilitation of billing, regulatory, and compliance documentation; however, improved clinical outcomes have not been demonstrated...
September 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Stephen M Casner, Jonathan W Schooler
In laboratory studies of vigilance, participants watch for unusual events in a "sit and stare" fashion as their performance typically declines over time. But watch keepers in practical settings seldom approach monitoring in such simplistic ways and controlled environments. We observed airline pilots performing routine monitoring duties in the cockpit. Unlike laboratory studies, pilots' monitoring did not deteriorate amidst prolonged vigils. Monitoring was frequently interrupted by other pop-up tasks and misses followed...
September 2015: Consciousness and Cognition
Gary H Kamimori, Tom M McLellan, Charmaine M Tate, David M Voss, Phil Niro, Harris R Lieberman
RATIONALE: Various occupational groups are required to maintain optimal physical and cognitive function during overnight periods of wakefulness, often with less than optimal sleep. Strategies are required to help mitigate the impairments in cognitive function to help sustain workplace safety and productivity. OBJECTIVES: To test the effectiveness of repeated 200 mg doses of caffeine on cognitive function and live-fire marksmanship with soldiers during three successive nights of sustained wakefulness followed by 4-h afternoon sleep periods...
June 2015: Psychopharmacology
James Lee, Jessica Manousakis, Joanne Fielding, Clare Anderson
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Alcohol and sleep loss are leading causes of motor vehicle crashes, whereby attention failure is a core causal factor. Despite a plethora of data describing the effect of alcohol and sleep loss on vigilant attention, little is known about their effect on voluntary and involuntary visual attention processes. DESIGN: Repeated-measures, counterbalanced design. SETTING: Controlled laboratory setting. PARTICIPANTS: Sixteen young (18-27 y; M = 21...
May 1, 2015: Sleep
H Jothiraj, J Howland-Harris, R Evley, I K Moppett
BACKGROUND: Distractions are cited as contributory to healthcare-associated errors in a large proportion of incidents including those involving anaesthetists. The anaesthetist is relatively understudied, despite the closer coupling between action and outcome than in surgery. METHODS: After formal regulatory approval, we undertook an observational study using a validated rating scale for the observed effect of distractions. We also recorded the parties involved, the relative urgency of the distraction and the likely benefit or harm to the initiator and recipient...
September 2013: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Nico Romeijn, Ilse M Verweij, Anne Koeleman, Anne Mooij, Rosa Steimke, Jussi Virkkala, Ysbrand van der Werf, Eus J W Van Someren
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Vigilance is affected by induced and spontaneous skin temperature fluctuations. Whereas sleep deprivation strongly affects vigilance, no previous study examined in detail its effect on human skin temperature fluctuations and their association with vigilance. DESIGN: In a repeated-measures constant routine design, skin temperatures were assessed continuously from 14 locations while performance was assessed using a reaction time task, including eyes-open video monitoring, performed five times a day for 2 days, after a normal sleep or sleep deprivation night...
December 1, 2012: Sleep
Shobha Phansalkar, Heleen van der Sijs, Alisha D Tucker, Amrita A Desai, Douglas S Bell, Jonathan M Teich, Blackford Middleton, David W Bates
OBJECTIVE: Alert fatigue represents a common problem associated with the use of clinical decision support systems in electronic health records (EHR). This problem is particularly profound with drug-drug interaction (DDI) alerts for which studies have reported override rates of approximately 90%. The objective of this study is to report consensus-based recommendations of an expert panel on DDI that can be safely made non-interruptive to the provider's workflow, in EHR, in an attempt to reduce alert fatigue...
May 1, 2013: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
G Campbell, K Arfanis, A F Smith
BACKGROUND: Distractions are a potential threat to patient safety. Previous research has focused on parts of the anaesthetic process but not on entire cases, and has focused on hazards rather than existing defences against error METHODS: We observed anaesthetists at work in the operating theatre and quantified and classified the distracting events occurring. We also conducted semi-structured interviews with consultant anaesthetists to explore existing strategies for managing distractions...
November 2012: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Karen L Campbell, Cheryl L Grady, Charisa Ng, Lynn Hasher
Current evidence suggests that older adults have reduced suppression of, and greater implicit memory for, distracting stimuli, due to age-related declines in frontal-based control mechanisms. In this study, we used fMRI to examine age differences in the neural underpinnings of attentional control and their relationship to differences in distractibility and subsequent memory for distraction. Older and younger adults were shown a rapid stream of words or nonwords superimposed on objects and performed a 1-back task on either the letters or the objects, while ignoring the other modality...
July 2012: Neuropsychologia
Christine M Jorm, Greg O'Sullivan
There has been no research performed concerning the effects of the use of laptops and smartphones in the operating theatre on anaesthetist performance, yet these devices are now in frequent use. This article explores the implications of this phenomenon. The cognitive and environmental factors that support or detract from vigilance and multi-tasking are explored and core anaesthetic literature on the nature of anaesthetic work and operating theatre distractions is reviewed. Experienced anaesthetists are skilled at multi-tasking while maintaining situational awareness, but there are limits...
January 2012: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
M A Broom, A L Capek, P Carachi, M A Akeroyd, G Hilditch
In aviation, the sterile cockpit rule prohibits non-essential activities during critical phases of flight, takeoff and landing, phases analogous to induction of, and emergence from, anaesthesia. We studied distraction during 30 anaesthetic inductions, maintenances and emergences. Mean (SD) noise during emergence (58.3 (6.2) dB) was higher than during induction (46.4 (4.3) dB) and maintenance (52 (4.5) dB; p<0.001). Sudden loud noises, greater than 70 dB, occurred more frequently at emergence (occurring 34 times) than at induction (occurring nine times) or maintenance (occurring 13 times)...
March 2011: Anaesthesia
Johanna I Westbrook, Amanda Woods, Marilyn I Rob, William T M Dunsmuir, Richard O Day
BACKGROUND: Interruptions have been implicated as a cause of clinical errors, yet, to our knowledge, no empirical studies of this relationship exist. We tested the hypothesis that interruptions during medication administration increase errors. METHODS: We performed an observational study of nurses preparing and administering medications in 6 wards at 2 major teaching hospitals in Sydney, Australia. Procedural failures and interruptions were recorded during direct observation...
April 26, 2010: Archives of Internal Medicine
2018-03-08 20:23:57
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