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Kelsey A Miller, Gary Andolfatto, James R Miner, John H Burton, Baruch S Krauss
We update an evidence-based clinical practice guideline for the administration of propofol for emergency department procedural sedation. Both the unique considerations of using this drug in the pediatric population and the substantial new research warrant revision of the 2007 advisory. We discuss the indications, contraindications, personnel requirements, monitoring, dosing, coadministered medications, and adverse events for propofol sedation.
February 4, 2019: Annals of Emergency Medicine
Pascal Incagnoli, Alain Puidupin, Sylvain Ausset, Jean Paul Beregi, Jacques Bessereau, Xavier Bobbia, Julien Brun, Elodie Brunel, Clément Buléon, Jacques Choukroun, Xavier Combes, Jean Stephane David, François-Régis Desfemmes, Delphine Garrigue, Jean-Luc Hanouz, Isabelle Plénier, Fréderic Rongieras, Benoit Vivien, Tobias Gauss, Anatole Harrois, Pierre Bouzat, Eric Kipnis
OBJECTIVE: Pelvic fractures represent 5% of all traumatic fractures and 30% are isolated pelvic fractures. Pelvic fractures are found in 10 to 20% of severe trauma patients and their presence is highly correlated to increasing trauma severity scores. The high mortality of pelvic trauma, about 8 to 15%, is related to actively bleeding pelvic injuries and/or associated injuries to the head, abdomen or chest. Regardless of the severity of pelvic trauma, diagnosis and treatment must proceed according to a strategy that does not delay the management of the most severely injured patients...
December 20, 2018: Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain Medicine
Anna McFarlin
The term "brief resolved unexplained event" was created to replace "apparent life-threatening event," narrowing the definition and providing evidence-based guidelines for management. The emphasis is placed on using clinical clues to classify patients as low risk or exclude them from the categorization altogether. Infants who meet low-risk classification can be briefly observed in the emergency department and be discharged home. Infants who demonstrate elements suggestive of a specific etiology should be evaluated and treated accordingly...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Jenny Mendelson
Shock, a state of inadequate oxygen delivery to tissues resulting in anaerobic metabolism, lactate accumulation, and end-organ dysfunction, is common in children in emergency department. Shock can be divided into 4 categories: hypovolemic, distributive, cardiogenic, and obstructive. Early recognition of shock can be made with close attention to historical clues, physical examination and vital sign abnormalities. Early and aggressive treatment can prevent or reverse organ dysfunction and improve morbidity and mortality...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Ashley M Strobel, Ryan Fey
Although the overall incidence of and mortality rate associated with burn injury have decreased in recent decades, burns remain a significant source of morbidity and mortality in children. Children with major burns require emergent resuscitation. Resuscitation is similar to that for adults, including pain control, airway management, and administration of intravenous fluid. However, in pediatrics, fluid resuscitation is needed for burns greater than or equal to 15% of total body surface area (TBSA) compared with burns greater than or equal to 20% TBSA for adults...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Stacy L Reynolds
Thoracic injuries account for less than one-tenth of all pediatric trauma-related injuries but comprise 14% of pediatric trauma-related deaths. Thoracic trauma includes injuries to the lungs, heart, aorta and great vessels, esophagus, tracheobronchial tree, and structures of the chest wall. Children have unique anatomic features that change the patterns of observed injury compared with adults. This review article outlines the clinical presentation, diagnostic testing, and management principles required to successfully manage injured children with thoracic trauma...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Aaron N Leetch, Bryan Wilson
Traumatic brain injury is a highly prevalent and devastating cause of morbidity and mortality in children. A rapid, stepwise approach to the traumatized child should proceed, addressing life-threatening problems first. Management focuses on preventing secondary injury from physiologic extremes such as hypoxemia, hypotension, prolonged hyperventilation, temperature extremes, and rapid changes in cerebral blood flow. Initial Glasgow Coma Score, hyperglycemia, and imaging are often prognostic of outcome. Surgically amenable lesions should be evacuated promptly...
May 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Erica M Simon, Matthew J Streitz, Daniel J Sessions, Colin G Kaide
Today a variety of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents are available on the market. Given the propensity for bleeding among patients prescribed these medications, the emergency medicine physician must be equipped with a working knowledge of hemostasis, and anticoagulant and antiplatelet reversal. This article reviews strategies to address bleeding complications occurring secondary to warfarin, low-molecular-weight heparin, and direct oral anticoagulant therapy.
August 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Daniel C Kolinsky, Stephen Y Liang
Bone and joint infections are potentially limb-threatening or even life-threatening diseases. Emergency physicians must consider infection when evaluating musculoskeletal complaints, as misdiagnosis can have significant consequences. Patients with bone and joint infections can have heterogeneous presentations with nonspecific signs and symptoms. Staphylococcus aureus is the most commonly implicated microorganism. Although diagnosis may be suggested by physical examination, laboratory testing, and imaging, tissue sampling for Gram stain and microbiologic culture is preferable, as pathogen identification and susceptibility testing help optimize long-term antibiotic therapy...
November 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Amelia Breyre, Bradley W Frazee
This article covers the diagnosis and treatment of skin and soft tissue infections commonly encountered in the emergency department: impetigo, cutaneous abscesses, purulent cellulitis, nonpurulent cellulitis, and necrotizing skin and soft tissue infections. Most purulent infections in the United States are caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. For abscesses, we emphasize the importance of incision and drainage. Nonpurulent infections are usually caused by streptococcal species and initial empiric antibiotics need not cover methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
November 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
SueLin M Hilbert, Hilary E L Reno
Sexually transmitted infections (STI) are very common infections in the United States. Most patients with STIs are evaluated and treated in primary care settings; however, many also present to the Emergency Department (ED) for initial care. Management of STIs in the ED includes appropriate testing and treatment per CDC Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines. Although most patients with STIs are asymptomatic or may only exhibit mild symptoms, serious complications from untreated infection are possible...
November 2018: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Jacob Szmuilowicz, Randall Young
Infections of the ear are a common presentation to an acute care environment. In this article, the authors aim to summarize the most common presentations, and diagnostic and treatment options for typical infections of the ear. This article is geared toward the emergency physician, urgent care provider, and primary care provider who will likely be the initial evaluating and treating provider to assist them in determining what treatment modalities can be managed in a clinic and what needs to be referred for admission or specialty consultation...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Laura J Bontempo, Sara L Manning
Tracheostomy is a common procedure for long-term airway management. Although the overall complication rate is greater than 50%, the incidence of serious complications is low. These serious complications can, however, lead to significant morbidity and mortality and it is incumbent on the emergency provider to be prepared to deal with such tracheostomy-related emergencies. The greatest life threats to the tracheostomy patient are decannulation, obstruction, and hemorrhage. Other important but lower-acuity complications include tracheoesophageal fistula formation, tracheal stenosis, infection, and tracheocutaneous fistula formation...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Rodney Omron
This article summarizes the systematic assessment of the dizzy patient who presents with peripheral vertigo. It demonstrates the steps and tests necessary using the Triage-Timing-Trigger-Test (Triage + TiTraTe) method to accurately diagnose the underlying most probable cause while ruling out life-threatening causes. Using video support and just-in-time infographics, it demonstrates the Dix-Hallpike, Semont, Epley, and HINTS maneuvers.
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Steve Chukwulebe, Christopher Hogrefe
Appropriate medical care for a patient with a facial fracture can not only optimize aesthetic outcomes but also prevent the potential morbidity and mortality of delayed treatment. In this article, we focus on the clinical presentations, physical examination findings, diagnostic imaging, consultations, and follow-up that patients with facial fractures need related to their emergency department management. Specifically, we address the nuances of evaluating frontal, orbital, nasal, maxillofacial, and mandibular fractures...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Leslie C Oyama
Foreign bodies to the ear, nose, and throat often can be managed in the emergency department, particularly if the patient offers a history consistent with foreign body and is calm and compliant with the examination and removal attempts. Tips for success include analgesia, adequate visualization, immobilization of the patient's head, dexterity and experience level of the provider, and minimizing attempts at removal. It is critical to recognize the risks involved with certain retained objects (button batteries or sharp objects) and when to call a consultant to help facilitate safe, successful removal of objects to the ear, nose, and throat...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Mac Henry, H Gene Hern
This article reviews the presentation, diagnosis, and management of common traumatic injuries of the ear, nose, and throat, including laryngeal trauma, auricular and septal hematomas, and tympanic membrane rupture.
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Neil Alexander Krulewitz, Megan Leigh Fix
Most anterior epistaxis originates primarily from the Kiesselbach plexus, whereas posterior epistaxis is less common and originates from branches of the sphenopalatine artery. Risk factors include local trauma, foreign body insertion, substance abuse, neoplasms, inherited bleeding diatheses, or acquired coagulopathies. Assessment of airway, breathing, and circulation precedes identification of bleeding source, pain control, and achieving hemostasis. Management options include topical vasoconstrictors, direct pressure, cautery, tranexamic acid, nasal tampons, Foley catheters, or surgical intervention...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Benjamin Wyler, William K Mallon
Rhinosinusitis affects many pediatric patients as well as 1 in 6 adults in any given year, resulting in ambulatory care, pediatric, and emergency department visits. Uncomplicated rhinosinusitis requires no imaging or testing and does not require antibiotic treatment. Using strict clinical diagnostic criteria may minimize unnecessary antibiotics. When indicated, amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for 5 to 10 days remains the first-line antibiotic, despite increasing incidence of staphylococcal sinusitis in the post-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era...
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Matthew R Klein
This article reviews the presentation, diagnosis, and management of common and "can't miss" infections of the oropharynx, including streptococcal pharyngitis, infectious mononucleosis, peritonsillar abscess, retropharyngeal abscess, and epiglottitis.
February 2019: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
2018-12-21 13:18:32
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