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Calcium supplementation

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By Joe Weatherly FM/Hospitalist-CoFounder of QuestioningMedicine and PCRAP contributor.
Lu Wang, JoAnn E Manson, Howard D Sesso
The potential effects of inadequate or excessive calcium supply on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are receiving growing attention. We review experimental, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence regarding the role of calcium intake in the development of CVD in adults. In vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have shown that calcium may affect the risk of developing CVD through multiple mechanisms including blood cholesterol, insulin secretion and sensitivity, vasodilation, inflammatory profile, thrombosis, obesity, and vascular calcification...
April 1, 2012: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Jean Y Tang, Teresa Fu, Erin Leblanc, Joann E Manson, David Feldman, Eleni Linos, Mara Z Vitolins, Nathalie C Zeitouni, Joseph Larson, Marcia L Stefanick
PURPOSE: In light of inverse relationships reported in observational studies of vitamin D intake and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels with risk of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and melanoma, we evaluated the effects of vitamin D combined with calcium supplementation on skin cancer in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years (N = 36,282) enrolled onto the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) calcium/vitamin D clinical trial were randomly assigned to receive 1,000 mg of elemental calcium plus 400 IU of vitamin D3 (CaD) daily or placebo for a mean follow-up period of 7...
August 1, 2011: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey, Greg D Gamble, Ian R Reid
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with many disorders, leading to calls for widespread supplementation. Some investigators suggest that more clinical trials to test the effect of vitamin D on disorders are needed. METHODS: We did a trial sequential meta-analysis of existing randomised controlled trials of vitamin D supplements, with or without calcium, to investigate the possible effect of future trials on current knowledge. We estimated the effects of vitamin D supplementation on myocardial infarction or ischaemic heart disease, stroke or cerebrovascular disease, cancer, total fracture, hip fracture, and mortality in trial sequential analyses using a risk reduction threshold of 5% for mortality and 15% for other endpoints...
April 2014: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
Virginia A Moyer
DESCRIPTION: New U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation statement on vitamin D and calcium supplementation to prevent fractures in adults. METHODS: The USPSTF commissioned 2 systematic evidence reviews and a meta-analysis on vitamin D supplementation with or without calcium to assess the effects of supplementation on bone health outcomes in community-dwelling adults, the association of vitamin D and calcium levels with bone health outcomes, and the adverse effects of supplementation...
May 7, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
Laura Galli, Alessandro Rubinacci, Deborah Cocorullo, Stefania Salpietro, Vincenzo Spagnuolo, Nicola Gianotti, Alba Bigoloni, Concetta Vinci, Giovanna Mignogna, Marcella Sirtori, Adriano Lazzarin, Antonella Castagna
BACKGROUND & AIMS: We performed a cross-sectional study on adult HIV-infected patients, on HAART, without calcium or vitamin D supplementation to evaluate if the cardiovascular risk or the presence of osteoporosis may be predictive factors of an optimal daily calcium intake (DCI>1000 mg/day). METHODS: Patients underwent a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, measured biochemical parameters and compiled a validated questionnaire for the assessment of DCI. Osteoporosis (OP) was defined according to the WHO classification at either the vertebral spine or femoral neck...
April 2014: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Sophie A Jamal, Ben Vandermeer, Paolo Raggi, David C Mendelssohn, Trish Chatterley, Marlene Dorgan, Charmaine E Lok, David Fitchett, Ross T Tsuyuki
BACKGROUND: Phosphate binders (calcium-based and calcium-free) are recommended to lower serum phosphate and prevent hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease, but their effects on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes are unknown. We aimed to update our meta-analysis on the effect of calcium-based versus non-calcium-based phosphate binders on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: We did a systematic review of articles published in any language after Aug 1, 2008, up until Oct 22, 2012, by searching Medline, Embase, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature...
October 12, 2013: Lancet
John F Aloia, Ruban Dhaliwal, Albert Shieh, Mageda Mikhail, Shahidul Islam, James K Yeh
CONTEXT: Bone health is influenced by the intake of both calcium and vitamin D. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the influence of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on PTH and bone turnover. SETTING, PATIENTS, AND DESIGN: At an ambulatory research center, 159 postmenopausal healthy white women participated in this double-blind, placebo-controlled parallel, longitudinal factorial study that was 6 months in duration. INTERVENTIONS: Subjects were randomly allocated to 4 groups: 1) double placebo, 2) calcium (1200 mg daily) plus placebo, 3) vitamin D3 (100 μg) plus placebo, and 4) vitamin D3 and calcium...
November 2013: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Morton G Burt, Brenda L Mangelsdorf, Divya Srivastava, Carolyn J Petersons
Calcium supplements have been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. However, the validity of these findings has been questioned. A major concern is that the mechanism underlying an increase in cardiovascular events has not been demonstrated. Calcium initiates cardiac and vascular contraction following influx of calcium into cardiac and smooth muscle from extracellular fluid. We have investigated whether the acute rise in serum calcium following calcium supplement administration is associated with adverse changes in cardiovascular function...
February 2013: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Rajib K Bhattacharya
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2013: American Family Physician
Ian R Reid, Mark J Bolland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2013: American Family Physician
Sarah M Bristow, Mark J Bolland, Graeme S MacLennan, Alison Avenell, Andrew Grey, Greg D Gamble, Ian R Reid
Some evidence suggests that Ca and vitamin D supplements affect cancer risk; however, it is uncertain whether the effects are due to Ca, vitamin D or the combination. We investigated the effect of Ca supplements without co-administered vitamin D on cancer risk. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of meta-analyses and two clinical trial registries were searched for randomised, placebo-controlled trials of Ca supplements ( ≥ 500 mg/d), with ≥ 100 participants and duration >1 year...
October 2013: British Journal of Nutrition
Hayam K Shaker, Sue Stigleman
Yes, according to studies with some limitations. Calcium supplements with or without vitamin D increase the risk of myocardial infarction, with numbers needed to harm (NNH) over 5 years of 69 to 240 (strength of recommendation: B, meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials that evaluated a predominantly older female population and were limited by study designs).
October 2012: Journal of Family Practice
Beverley Shea, George Wells, Ann Cranney, Nicole Zytaruk, Vivian Robinson, Lauren Griffith, Zulma Ortiz, Joan Peterson, Jonathan Adachi, Peter Tugwell, Gordon Guyatt
OBJECTIVE: To summarize controlled trials examining the effect of calcium on bone density and fractures in postmenopausal women. DATA SOURCE: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE up to 1998 and the Cochrane Controlled Register up to 2000, and we examined citations of relevant articles and proceedings of international meetings. We contacted osteoporosis investigators to identify additional studies, and primary authors for unpublished data. STUDY SELECTION: We included 15 trials (1806 patients) that randomized postmenopausal women to calcium supplementation or usual calcium intake in the diet and reported bone mineral density of the total body, vertebral spine, hip, or forearm, or recorded the number of fractures, and followed patients for at least 1 yr...
August 2002: Endocrine Reviews
Mikayla Spangler, Beth Bryles Phillips, Mary B Ross, Kevin G Moores
PURPOSE: The most recent large-scale studies evaluating the effects of calcium supplementation for prevention of osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women are reviewed. SUMMARY: Osteoporosis is a very common disease associated with significant morbidity and mortality. For many years, use of a calcium supplement (preferably in combination with vitamin D to optimize calcium absorption) has been recommended for postmenopausal women to decrease fracture risk...
February 15, 2011: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
Mark J Bolland, Alison Avenell, John A Baron, Andrew Grey, Graeme S MacLennan, Greg D Gamble, Ian R Reid
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether calcium supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events. DESIGN: Patient level and trial level meta-analyses. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1966-March 2010), reference lists of meta-analyses of calcium supplements, and two clinical trial registries. Initial searches were carried out in November 2007, with electronic database searches repeated in March 2010...
July 29, 2010: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Mark J Bolland, Andrew Grey, Alison Avenell, Greg D Gamble, Ian R Reid
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of personal calcium supplement use on cardiovascular risk in the Women's Health Initiative Calcium/Vitamin D Supplementation Study (WHI CaD Study), using the WHI dataset, and to update the recent meta-analysis of calcium supplements and cardiovascular risk. DESIGN: Reanalysis of WHI CaD Study limited access dataset and incorporation in meta-analysis with eight other studies. Data source WHI CaD Study, a seven year, randomised, placebo controlled trial of calcium and vitamin D (1g calcium and 400 IU vitamin D daily) in 36,282 community dwelling postmenopausal women...
April 19, 2011: BMJ: British Medical Journal
JoAnn E Manson, Matthew A Allison, J Jeffrey Carr, Robert D Langer, Barbara B Cochrane, Susan L Hendrix, Judith Hsia, Julie R Hunt, Cora E Lewis, Karen L Margolis, Jennifer G Robinson, Rebecca J Rodabough, Asha M Thomas
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery calcified plaque is a marker for atheromatous plaque burden and predicts future risk of cardiovascular events. The relationship between calcium plus vitamin D (calcium/D) supplementation and coronary artery calcium (CAC) has not been previously assessed in a randomized trial setting. We compared CAC scores after trial completion between women randomized to calcium/vitamin D supplementation and women randomized to placebo. METHODS: In an ancillary substudy of women randomized to calcium carbonate (1,000 mg of elemental calcium daily) plus vitamin D3 (400 IU daily) or placebo, nested within the Women's Health Initiative trial of estrogen among women who underwent hysterectomy, we measured CAC with cardiac CT in 754 women aged 50 to 59 years at randomization...
July 2010: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Douglas C Bauer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2013: Annals of Internal Medicine
Karine Castro-Lionard, Patricia Dargent-Molina, Christophe Fermanian, Régis Gonthier, Bernard Cassou
BACKGROUND: Despite the availability of effective preventive and curative medications for osteoporosis, and guidelines for its diagnosis and management, few individuals are treated for osteoporosis, even among those who have already had a fracture. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to describe the patterns of use of medication for osteoporosis, i.e., calcium supplements, vitamin D supplements, and specific anti-osteoporotic drugs, such as bisphosphonates, in a large sample of French older women living at home, and to identify individual factors associated with use of these medications overall and in two specific clinical situations...
December 2013: Drugs & Aging
2014-02-19 15:45:56
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