collection
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34289274/effectiveness-of-covid-19-vaccines-against-the-b-1-617-2-delta-variant
#1
Jamie Lopez Bernal, Nick Andrews, Charlotte Gower, Eileen Gallagher, Ruth Simmons, Simon Thelwall, Julia Stowe, Elise Tessier, Natalie Groves, Gavin Dabrera, Richard Myers, Colin N J Campbell, Gayatri Amirthalingam, Matt Edmunds, Maria Zambon, Kevin E Brown, Susan Hopkins, Meera Chand, Mary Ramsay
BACKGROUND: The B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has contributed to a surge in cases in India and has now been detected across the globe, including a notable increase in cases in the United Kingdom. The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines against this variant has been unclear. METHODS: We used a test-negative case-control design to estimate the effectiveness of vaccination against symptomatic disease caused by the delta variant or the predominant strain (B...
July 21, 2021: New England Journal of Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34267379/telehealth-is-here-to-stay
#2
EDITORIAL
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2021: Nature Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34088810/acceptance-of-covid-19-vaccination-among-health-system-personnel
#3
Daniel J Parente, Akinlolu Ojo, Tami Gurley, Joseph W LeMaster, Mark Meyer, David M Wild, Reem A Mustafa
INTRODUCTION: One-third of the general public will not accept Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination but factors influencing vaccine acceptance among health care personnel (HCP) are not known. We investigated barriers and facilitators to vaccine acceptance within 3 months of regulatory approval (primary outcome) among adult employees and students at a tertiary-care, academic medical center. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional survey design with multivariable logistic regression...
May 2021: Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine: JABFM
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34247883/iga-nephropathy-core-curriculum-2021
#4
REVIEW
Prapa Pattrapornpisut, Carmen Avila-Casado, Heather N Reich
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common primary glomerular disease worldwide. The diagnostic histologic hallmark is dominant or codominant IgA staining on kidney biopsy; however, patients may present with various clinical syndromes ranging from asymptomatic abnormalities noted on urinalysis to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. Given substantial heterogeneity in the clinical course of disease, online risk calculators are available that may assist in prognostication and inform discussions with patients...
July 9, 2021: American Journal of Kidney Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34224187/covid-19-and-ischemic-stroke
#5
REVIEW
Dimitrios Sagris, Aikaterini Papanikolaou, Alexandra Kvernland, Eleni Korompoki, Jennifer A Frontera, Andrea B Troxel, Maria Gavriatopoulou, Haralampos Milionis, Gregory Y H Lip, Patrik Michel, Shadi Yaghi, George Ntaios
Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, a substantial proportion of COVID-19 patients had documented thrombotic complications and ischemic stroke. Several mechanisms related to immune mediated thrombosis, the renin angiotensin system, and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 in cardiac and brain tissue may contribute to the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke in patients with COVID-19. Simultaneously, significant strains on global healthcare delivery, including ischemic stroke management, have made treatment of stroke in the setting of COVID-19 particularly challenging...
July 5, 2021: European Journal of Neurology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34168440/update-on-asthma-copd-overlap-aco-a-narrative-review
#6
REVIEW
Evgeni Mekov, Alexa Nuñez, Don D Sin, Masakazu Ichinose, Chin Kook Rhee, Diego Jose Maselli, Andréanne Coté, Charlotte Suppli Ulrik, François Maltais, Antonio Anzueto, Marc Miravitlles
Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma are well-characterized diseases, they can coexist in a given patient. The term asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) was introduced to describe patients that have clinical features of both diseases and may represent around 25% of COPD patients and around 20% of asthma patients. Despite the increasing interest in ACO, there are still substantial controversies regarding its definition and its position within clinical guidelines for patients with obstructive lung disease...
2021: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34216304/energetic-dysfunction-in-sepsis-a-narrative-review
#7
REVIEW
Sebastien Preau, Dominique Vodovar, Boris Jung, Steve Lancel, Lara Zafrani, Aurelien Flatres, Mehdi Oualha, Guillaume Voiriot, Youenn Jouan, Jeremie Joffre, Fabrice Huel, Nicolas De Prost, Stein Silva, Eric Azabou, Peter Radermacher
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence associates organ dysfunction(s) with impaired metabolism in sepsis. Recent research has increased our understanding of the role of substrate utilization and mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathophysiology of sepsis-related organ dysfunction. The purpose of this review is to present this evidence as a coherent whole and to highlight future research directions. MAIN TEXT: Sepsis is characterized by systemic and organ-specific changes in metabolism...
July 3, 2021: Annals of Intensive Care
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34233330/the-forgotten-antiproteinuric-properties-of-diuretics
#8
REVIEW
Hernando Trujillo, Fernando Caravaca-Fontán, Jara Caro, Enrique Morales, Manuel Praga
BACKGROUND: Although diuretics are one of the most widely used drugs by nephrologists, their antiproteinuric properties are not generally taken into consideration. SUMMARY: Thiazide diuretics have been shown to reduce proteinuria by >35% in several prospective controlled studies, and these values are markedly increased when combined with a low-salt diet. Thiazide-like diuretics (indapamide and chlorthalidone) have shown similar effectiveness. The antiproteinuric effect of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (spironolactone, eplerenone, and finerenone) has been clearly established through prospective and controlled studies, and treatment with finerenone reduces the risk of chronic kidney disease progression in type-2 diabetic patients...
July 7, 2021: American Journal of Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/33447845/heart-failure-drug-treatment-the-fantastic-four
#9
EDITORIAL
Johann Bauersachs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2021: European Heart Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34247526/the-impact-of-corticosteroids-on-secondary-infection-and-mortality-in-critically-ill-covid-19-patients
#10
Lindsay A Ritter, Noel Britton, Emily L Heil, William A Teeter, Sarah B Murthi, Jonathan H Chow, Emily Ricotta, Daniel S Chertow, Alison Grazioli, Andrea R Levine
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are part of the treatment guidelines for COVID-19 and have been shown to improve mortality. However, the impact corticosteroids have on the development of secondary infection in COVID-19 is unknown. We sought to define the rate of secondary infection in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and determine the effect of corticosteroid use on mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: One hundred and thirty-five critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) at the University of Maryland Medical Center were included in this single-center retrospective analysis...
July 12, 2021: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34213593/acute-kidney-injury-in-the-critically-ill-an-updated-review-on-pathophysiology-and-management
#11
REVIEW
Peter Pickkers, Michael Darmon, Eric Hoste, Michael Joannidis, Matthieu Legrand, Marlies Ostermann, John R Prowle, Antoine Schneider, Miet Schetz
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is now recognized as a heterogeneous syndrome that not only affects acute morbidity and mortality, but also a patient's long-term prognosis. In this narrative review, an update on various aspects of AKI in critically ill patients will be provided. Focus will be on prediction and early detection of AKI (e.g., the role of biomarkers to identify high-risk patients and the use of machine learning to predict AKI), aspects of pathophysiology and progress in the recognition of different phenotypes of AKI, as well as an update on nephrotoxicity and organ cross-talk...
July 2, 2021: Intensive Care Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34216571/sglt2-inhibitors-and-glp-1-receptor-agonists-established-and-emerging-indications
#12
REVIEW
Emily Brown, Hiddo J L Heerspink, Daniel J Cuthbertson, John P H Wilding
SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists are used in patients with type 2 diabetes as glucose lowering therapies, with additional benefits of weight loss and blood pressure reduction. Data from cardiovascular outcome trials have highlighted that these drugs confer protection against major cardiovascular disease in those with established atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, reduce the risk of admission to hospital for heart failure, and reduce cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Ongoing research using hard renal endpoints such as end stage kidney disease rather than surrogate markers might clarify the renoprotective benefits of both agents...
June 30, 2021: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34217425/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Nuala J Meyer, Luciano Gattinoni, Carolyn S Calfee
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute respiratory illness characterised by bilateral chest radiographical opacities with severe hypoxaemia due to non-cardiogenic pulmonary oedema. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused an increase in ARDS and highlighted challenges associated with this syndrome, including its unacceptably high mortality and the lack of effective pharmacotherapy. In this Seminar, we summarise current knowledge regarding ARDS epidemiology and risk factors, differential diagnosis, and evidence-based clinical management of both mechanical ventilation and supportive care, and discuss areas of controversy and ongoing research...
July 1, 2021: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34176194/sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitors-and-non-steroidal-mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists-ushering-in-a-new-era-of-nephroprotection-beyond-renin-angiotensin-system-blockade
#14
REVIEW
Srinivas Vinayak Shenoy, Shankar Prasad Nagaraju, Mohan Varadanayakanahalli Bhojaraja, Ravindra Attur Prabhu, Dharshan Rangaswamy, Indu Ramachandra Rao
The therapeutic options for preventing or slowing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been thus far limited. While angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are, without a doubt, safe and effective drugs, a significant proportion of patients with CKD still progress to end-stage kidney disease. After decades of negative trials, nephrologists have finally found cause for optimism with the introduction of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs)...
June 27, 2021: Nephrology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34125304/neurologic-manifestations-of-the-antiphospholipid-syndrome-an-update
#15
REVIEW
Miguel Leal Rato, Matilde Bandeira, Vasco C Romão, Diana Aguiar de Sousa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In recent years, the spectrum of neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) has been growing. We provide a critical review of the literature with special emphasis on presentation, proposed mechanisms of disease, and treatment of neurological involvement in APS. RECENT FINDINGS: Although stroke is the most common cause of neurological manifestations in patients with APS, other neurological disorders have been increasingly associated with the disease, including cognitive dysfunction, headache, and epilepsy...
June 14, 2021: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34229895/what-is-the-optimal-resuscitation-fluid-for-patients-with-sepsis-trauma-or-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
EDITORIAL
Michael J Yoo, Rachel E Bridwell, Brit Long
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 3, 2021: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34175022/chronic-kidney-disease
#17
REVIEW
Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh, Tazeen H Jafar, Dorothea Nitsch, Brendon L Neuen, Vlado Perkovic
Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease with no cure and high morbidity and mortality that occurs commonly in the general adult population, especially in people with diabetes and hypertension. Preservation of kidney function can improve outcomes and can be achieved through non-pharmacological strategies (eg, dietary and lifestyle adjustments) and chronic kidney disease-targeted and kidney disease-specific pharmacological interventions. A plant-dominant, low-protein, and low-salt diet might help to mitigate glomerular hyperfiltration and preserve renal function for longer, possibly while also leading to favourable alterations in acid-base homoeostasis and in the gut microbiome...
June 24, 2021: Lancet
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34231046/evidence-based-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-liver-cirrhosis-2020
#18
REVIEW
Hitoshi Yoshiji, Sumiko Nagoshi, Takemi Akahane, Yoshinari Asaoka, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Koji Ogawa, Takumi Kawaguchi, Masayuki Kurosaki, Isao Sakaida, Masahito Shimizu, Makiko Taniai, Shuji Terai, Hiroki Nishikawa, Yoichi Hiasa, Hisashi Hidaka, Hiroto Miwa, Kazuaki Chayama, Nobuyuki Enomoto, Tooru Shimosegawa, Tetsuo Takehara, Kazuhiko Koike
The first edition of the clinical practice guidelines for liver cirrhosis was published in 2010, and the second edition was published in 2015 by the Japanese Society of Gastroenterology (JSGE). The revised third edition was recently published in 2020. This version has become a joint guideline by the JSGE and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH). In addition to the clinical questions (CQs), background questions (BQs) are new items for basic clinical knowledge, and future research questions (FRQs) are newly added clinically important items...
July 7, 2021: Journal of Gastroenterology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34181716/ivermectin-for-the-treatment-of-covid-19-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Yuani M Roman, Paula Alejandra Burela, Vinay Pasupuleti, Alejandro Piscoya, Jose E Vidal, Adrian V Hernandez
BACKGROUND: We systematically assessed benefits and harms of the use of ivermectin (IVM) in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Published and preprint randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing IVM effects on COVID-19 adult patients were searched until March 22, 2021 in five engines. Primary outcomes were all-cause mortality, length of stay (LOS), and adverse events (AE). Secondary outcomes included viral clearance and severe AEs. Risk of bias (RoB) was evaluated using Cochrane RoB 2·0 tool...
June 28, 2021: Clinical Infectious Diseases
https://read.qxmd.com/read/34186007/reply-to-the-dethroning-of-6-ml-per-kg-as-the-go-to-setting-in-ards
#20
Ewan C Goligher, Eduardo L V Costa
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 29, 2021: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
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