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Adeline Tarantini, Sylvie Huet, Gérard Jarry, Rachelle Lanceleur, Martine Poul, Ana Tavares, Nádia Vital, Henriqueta Louro, Maria João Silva, Valérie Fessard
Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) in its nanosized form is now used in food applications although the potential risks for human health have not been evaluated. In this study, genotoxicity and oxidative DNA damage of two pyrogenic (NM-202 and 203) and two precipitated (NM-200 and -201) nanosized SAS were investigated in vivo in rats following oral exposure. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 5, 10, or 20 mg/kg b.w./day for three days by gavage. DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage were investigated in seven tissues (blood, bone marrow from femur, liver, spleen, kidney, duodenum, and colon) with the alkaline and the (Fpg)-modified comet assays, respectively...
March 2015: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Yves Guichard, Marie-Aline Maire, Sylvie Sébillaud, Caroline Fontana, Cristina Langlais, Jean-Claude Micillino, Christian Darne, Joanna Roszak, Maciej Stępnik, Valérie Fessard, Stéphane Binet, Laurent Gaté
Synthetic amorphous silica nanomaterials (SAS) are extensively used in food and tire industries. In many industrial processes, SAS may become aerosolized and lead to occupational exposure of workers through inhalation in particular. However, little is known about the in vivo genotoxicity of these particulate materials. To gain insight into the toxicological properties of four SAS (NM-200, NM-201, NM-202, and NM-203), rats are treated with three consecutive intratracheal instillations of 3, 6, or 12 mg/kg of SAS at 48, 24, and 3 hrs prior to tissue collection (cumulative doses of 9, 18, and 36 mg/kg)...
March 2015: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Claudia Fruijtier-Pölloth
Particle sizes of E 551 products are in the micrometre range. The typical external diameters of the constituent particles (aggregates) are greater than 100 nm. E 551 does not break down under acidic conditions such as in the stomach, but may release dissolved silica in environments with higher pH such as the intestinal tract. E 551 is one of the toxicologically most intensively studied substances and has not shown any relevant systemic or local toxicity after oral exposure. Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) meeting the specifications for use as a food additive (E 551) is and has always been produced by the same two production methods: the thermal and the wet processes, resulting in E 551 products consisting of particles typically in the micrometre size range...
December 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Do Won Hwang, Dong Soo Lee, Soonhag Kim
UNLABELLED: Nanomaterials have been widely evaluated for potential use as efficient delivery carriers for cancer diagnosis and therapy. To translate these nanomaterials to the clinic, their safety needs to be verified, particularly in terms of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. We investigated changes in gene expression profiles influenced by silica-coated cobalt ferrite magnetic-fluorescence nanoparticles and silica-free cobalt ferrite magnetic-core nanoparticles in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: (68)Ga-labeled cobalt ferrite nanoparticles produced by synthesis of 2-(p-isothio-cyanatobenzyl)-1,4,7-triazacyclonane-1,4,7-triacetic acid chelator were established after labeling efficiency had been validated through a thin-layer chromatography method...
January 2012: Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Sivakumar Murugadoss, Dominique Lison, Lode Godderis, Sybille Van Den Brule, Jan Mast, Frederic Brassinne, Noham Sebaihi, Peter H Hoet
Large-scale production and use of amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have increased the risk of human exposure to SiNPs, while their health effects remain unclear. In this review, scientific papers from 2010 to 2016 were systematically selected and sorted based on in vitro and in vivo studies: to provide an update on SiNPs toxicity and to address the knowledge gaps indicated in the review of Napierska (Part Fibre Toxicol 7:39, 2010). Toxicity of SiNPs in vitro is size, dose, and cell type dependent. SiNPs synthesized by wet route exhibited noticeably different biological effects compared to thermal route-based SiNPs...
September 2017: Archives of Toxicology
Luciano Molognoni, Heitor Daguer, Leandro Antunes de Sá Ploêncio, Suzana Eri Yotsuyanagi, Ana Lucia da Silva Correa Lemos, Antonio Carlos Joussef, Juliano De Dea Lindner
The use of sorbate and nitrite in meat processing may lead to the formation of 2-methyl-1,4-dinitro-pyrrole (DNMP), a mutagenic compound. This work was aimed at developing and validating an analytical method for the quantitation of DNMP by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Full validation was performed in accordance to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and method applicability was checked in several samples of meat products. A simple procedure, with low temperature partitioning solid-liquid extraction, was developed...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Neng-Zhi Zhou, Ping Liu, Xiao-Chuan Su, Yan-Hua Liao, Ning-Sheng Lei, Yong-Hong Liang, Shao-Huan Zhou, Wen-Si Lin, Jie Chen, Yu-Qi Feng, Yang Tang
Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic secondary metabolites produced by the toxigenic fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. AFs tend to contaminate a wide range of foods which is a serious and recurring food safety problem worldwide. Currently, immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) has become the most conventional sample clean-up method for determining AFs in foodstuffs. However, IAC method is limited in the large-scale food analysis because it requires the use of expensive disposable cartridges and the IA procedure is time-consuming...
June 1, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
Eşref Demir, Sezgin Aksakal, Fatma Turna, Bülent Kaya, Ricard Marcos
Although the use of synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) is steady increasing, scarce information exists on its potential health risk. In particular few and conflictive data exist on its genotoxicity. To fill in this gap we have used Drosophila melanogaster as in vivo model test organism to detect the genotoxic activity of different SAS with different primary sizes (6, 15, 30 and 55 nm). The wing-spot assay and the comet assay in larvae haemocytes were used, and the obtained results were compared with those obtained with the microparticulated form (silicon dioxide)...
2015: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Esra Mutlu, Sarah H Warren, Peggy P Matthews, Judith E Schmid, Ingeborg M Kooter, William P Linak, M Ian Gilmour, David M DeMarini
CONTEXT: Soy biodiesel is the predominant biodiesel in the USA, but there is little understanding of the classes of chemicals responsible for the mutagenicity of its emissions. OBJECTIVE: We determined some of the chemical classes responsible for the mutagenicity of the particulate matter (PM) of the emissions from petroleum diesel (B0) and biodiesel containing increasing concentrations of soy methyl esters (B20, B50, and B100). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We subjected organic extracts of the PM to bioassay-directed fractionation by sequential elution on silica gel with solvents of increasing polarity to produce four fractions per fuel...
2015: Inhalation Toxicology
Dayun Zhao, Jingfu Jia, Xuelei Yu, Xiangjun Sun
A new molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) has been prepared on silica beads using the radical "grafting from" polymerization method for selective extraction of minor contaminant mycotoxin of patulin (PTL). After the introduction of amino groups onto the silica surface with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane, azo initiator onto the silica surface was achieved by the reaction of surface amino groups with 4,4'-azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid). The scale-up synthesis of MIP was then carried out in the presence of 6-hydroxynicotinic acid as template substitute, functional, and cross-linking monomers...
October 2011: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Margriet V D Z Park, Henny W Verharen, Edwin Zwart, Lya G Hernandez, Jan van Benthem, Andreas Elsaesser, Clifford Barnes, George McKerr, C Vyvyan Howard, Anna Salvati, Iseult Lynch, Kenneth A Dawson, Wim H de Jong
We investigated the potential of four well-characterized amorphous silica nanoparticles to induce chromosomal aberrations and gene mutations using two in vitro genotoxicity assays. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the manufacturer's nominal size of 10, 30, 80 and 400 nm which showed actual sizes of 11, 34, 34 and 248 nm, respectively. The 80 (34) nm silica nanoparticles induced chromosomal aberrations in the micronucleus assay using 3T3-L1 mouse fibroblasts and the 30 (34) and 80 (34) nm silica nanoparticles induced gene mutations in mouse embryonic fibroblasts carrying the lacZ reporter gene...
June 2011: Nanotoxicology
Paul J A Borm, Lang Tran, Ken Donaldson
In 1987 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified crystalline silica (CS) as a probable carcinogen and in 1997 reclassified it as a Group 1 carcinogen, i.e., that there was sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in experimental animals and sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity in humans. The Working Group noted that "carcinogenicity in humans was not detected in all industrial circumstances studied, carcinogenicity may be dependent on inherent characteristics of the crystalline silica or on external factors affecting its biological activity or distribution of its polymorphs...
October 2011: Critical Reviews in Toxicology
Laetitia Gonzalez, Leen C J Thomassen, Gina Plas, Virginie Rabolli, Dorota Napierska, Ilse Decordier, Mathieu Roelants, Peter H Hoet, Christine E A Kirschhock, Johan A Martens, Dominique Lison, Micheline Kirsch-Volders
We explored how to assess the genotoxic potential of nanosize particles with a well validated assay, the in vitro cytochalasin-B micronucleus assay, detecting both clastogens and aneugens. Monodisperse Stöber amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) of three different sizes (16, 60 and 104 nm) and A549 lung carcinoma cells were selected as models. Cellular uptake of silica was monitored by ICP-MS. At non-cytotoxic doses the smallest particles showed a slightly higher fold induction of micronuclei (MNBN). When considering the three SNPs together, particle number and total surface area appeared to account for MNBN induction as they both correlated significantly with the amplitude of the effect...
December 2010: Nanotoxicology
Natalia Fernández-Bertólez, Carla Costa, Fátima Brandão, Gözde Kiliç, José Alberto Duarte, Joao Paulo Teixeira, Eduardo Pásaro, Vanessa Valdiglesias, Blanca Laffon
Iron oxide nanoparticles (ION) have great potential for an increasing number of medical and biological applications, particularly those focused on nervous system. Although ION seem to be biocompatible and present low toxicity, it is imperative to unveil the potential risk for the nervous system associated to their exposure, especially because current data on ION effects on human nervous cells are scarce. Thus, in the present study potential toxicity associated with silica-coated ION (S-ION) exposure was evaluated on human A172 glioblastoma cells...
August 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Jee Young Kwon, Preeyaporn Koedrith, Young Rok Seo
Engineered nanoparticles (NPs) are widely used in many sectors, such as food, medicine, military, and sport, but their unique characteristics may cause deleterious health effects. Close attention is being paid to metal NP genotoxicity; however, NP genotoxic/carcinogenic effects and the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In this review, we address some metal and metal oxide NPs of interest and current genotoxicity tests in vitro and in vivo. Metal NPs can cause DNA damage such as chromosomal aberrations, DNA strand breaks, oxidative DNA damage, and mutations...
2014: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Erwin Eder, Jaime Espinosa-Gonzalez, Andreas Mayer, Karin Reichenberger, Donald Boerth
1,3-Dichloropropene (1,3-DCP) is used as a soil nematocide worldwide. Technical grade 1,3-DCP is genotoxic/mutagenic and carcinogenic. Talcott and King reported that mutagenic activity is lost after purification of 1,3-DCP samples via silica gel column chromatography. We found that mutagenicity and SOS repair in Escherichia coli, strain PM 21, are strongly reduced after purification via silica gel and that mutagenicity and induction of SOS repair depend on oxidative impurities and secondary products. Both isomers (E and Z) of 1,3-DCP are oxidized to 1,3-dichloropropene epoxide (1,3-DCP-Ox)...
July 2006: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Motofumi Miura, Keiko Inami, Masafumi Yoshida, Kentaro Yamaguchi, Tadahiko Mashino, Masataka Mochizuki
N-Nitrosodialkylamines show their mutagenicity by forming α-hydroxynitrosamines in the presence of rat S9 mix in the Ames assay. The hydroxyl radical derived from Fe(2+)-H(2)O(2) (Fenton's reagent) with Cu(2+) activates N-nitrosamines, with an alkyl chain longer than a propyl constituent, to a direct-acting mutagen. The reactivity of Fe(2+)-Cu(2+)-H(2)O(2) on nitrosamines in relation to their metabolic activation is not fully characterized. Here, we report the identification of the direct-acting mutagen derived from N-nitroso-N-methylpentylamine (NMPe) in the presence of Fe(2+), Cu(2+), H(2)O(2) and nitric oxide (NO), which is a product of nitrosamine metabolism...
September 15, 2011: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Caterina Ledda, Salvatore Cocuzza, Monica Salerno, Paola Senia, Serena Matera, Venerando Rapisarda, Carla Loreto
Basalt and volcanic ash are natural constituents of the ground surrounding volcanic areas such as Mount Etna. The dust may be daily inhaled by the general population as well as by several types of workers, such as construction workers. In this experiment, we analyzed the potential mutagenic and cytotoxic effects of the materials used in construction industry, excavated from Mt. Etna. Ground basalt (A), volcanic ash (B), mixed basalt and cement (C) and cement (D) were studied with Ames test, for mutagenic assessment and with MMT assay for cytotoxic evaluation...
May 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
Y Guichard, C Fontana, E Chavinier, F Terzetti, L Gaté, S Binet, C Darne
The nature of occupational risks and hazards in industries that produce or use synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) nanoparticles is still under discussion. Manufactured SAS occur in amorphous form and can be divided into two main types according to the production process, namely, pyrogenic silica (powder) and precipitated silica (powder, gel or colloid). The physical and chemical properties of SAS may vary in terms of particle size, surface area, agglomeration state or purity, and differences in their toxicity potential might therefore be expected...
September 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Meng Niu, Hongshan Zhong, Haibo Shao, Duo Hong, Tengchuang Ma, Ke Xu, Xiaowei Chen, Jinhang Han, Jun Sun
Although mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are widely used in food products, cosmetics and nanomedicines as vector for drug delivery, data on their potential genotoxocity are limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxic and genotoxic potentials of MSNs of different shapes, and to establish a high-throughput screening method for nanoparticles. We used functional macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO)-expressing DNA repair deficient chicken DT40 cells, which are designed to internalize nanoparticles and to be deficient in several specific DNA repair pathways...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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