Cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) in normal sleep: polysomnographic parameters in different age groups

L Parrino, M Boselli, M C Spaggiari, A Smerieri, M G Terzano
Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 1998, 107 (6): 439-50

OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at offering a standardized database for cyclic alternating pattern (CAP) parameters across representative ages of life.

METHODS: CAP parameters were quantified in 40 healthy sleepers and polygraphically investigated in a partially sound-proof recording chamber under a standard laboratory setting. Four age groups were investigated (teenagers: 10-19 years; young adults: 20-39 years; middle-aged: 40-59 years; elderly: 60 years). Each group included 10 subjects (5 males and 5 females). Nocturnal recordings were accomplished after adaptation to the sleep laboratory that also served to rule out the presence of sleep-related disorders. The study indicated that CAP is a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep, with specific age-related characteristics across the life cycle.

RESULTS: CAP rate in NREM sleep, defined as the percentage ratio of total CAP time to total NREM sleep time, showed a U-shape profile with minimum in young adults (31.9%), maximum in the elderly group (55.3%), and intermediate values in teenagers (43.4%) and in middle-aged subjects (37.5%). The longest duration of CAP cycles was found among the older subjects (31 s). The highest amounts of subtypes A1 were identified in teenagers (n = 261), while the highest amounts of A2 and A3 subtypes occurred in the elderly group (n = 183). Across the ages, the level of arousal mostly fluctuated in stages 1 and 3, whereas stage 4 emerged as the most stable NREM stage. Overall, stage 2 better reflected the CAP values referred to as total NREM sleep.

CONCLUSIONS: The periodic arousal fluctuations reflected by CAP are a natural phenomenon of NREM sleep with specific age-related variations across the life cycle.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"