Interleukin-10 enhances tumor necrosis factor-alpha activation of HIV-1 transcription in latently infected T cells

M F Rabbi, A Finnegan, L Al-Harthi, S Song, K A Roebuck
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes and Human Retrovirology 1998 December 1, 19 (4): 321-31
Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is elevated in HIV-1-infected individuals and has been implicated in disease progression. We previously reported that IL-10 cooperates with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) to activate HIV-1 expression synergistically in acutely infected monocyte-derived macrophages and the chronically infected U1 promonocytic cell line. To determine whether IL-10 also cooperates with TNF-alpha to activate latent HIV-I expression in lymphocytes, we examined the effects of IL-10 on proviral expression in the chronically infected T-cell line, ACH-2. Although IL-10 inhibited HIV-1 expression acting alone, in combination with suboptimal concentrations of TNF-alpha, IL-10 increased HIV-1 steady-state mRNA expression and p24 core antigen production in ACH-2 cells. Interestingly, IL-10 concentrations that synergistically induced virus also maximally stimulated endogenous TNF-alpha expression, suggesting that cell-derived TNF-alpha may contribute to cytokine synergy. Transfection studies in ACH-2 cells indicated that IL-10 combined with TNF-alpha to activate the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR). IL-10 also cooperated with TNF-alpha to activate HIV-1 LTR in 1G5 cells, a Jurkat T-cell line stably transfected with an LTR-dependent luciferase reporter gene. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, a potent transcriptional inhibitor of the viral LTR, abrogated the cytokine responses in both U1 and ACH-2 cells, suggesting a common TNF-alpha-mediated transcriptional mechanism in these cell types despite their different modes of provirus latency. Taken collectively, these data suggest that IL-10 enhances suboptimal TNF-alpha activation of HIV-1 transcription in chronically infected T-cells at least in part through induction of endogenous TNF-alpha expression.


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