Respiratory muscle performance, pulmonary mechanics, and gas exchange between the BiPAP S/T-D system and the Servo Ventilator 900C with bilevel positive airway pressure ventilation following gradual pressure support weaning

R G Patel, M F Petrini
Chest 1998, 114 (5): 1390-6

STUDY OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare respiratory muscle performance, pulmonary mechanics, and gas exchange between the BiPAP S/T-D ventilation system (Respironics Inc; Murrysville, PA) and the Servo Ventilator 900C (Siemens-Elma AB; Sweden) with similar inspiratory and expiratory airway pressure in patients who are recovering from acute respiratory failure.

STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, randomized, clinical trial.


PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied 27 medical patients on mechanical ventilators following gradual pressure support weaning. Each patient breathed while in the following equivalent modes: (a) an inspiratory pressure preset (pressure support mode) of 5 cm H2O with an external positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O on the Servo Ventilator 900C and (b) an inspiratory pressure preset of 10 cm H2O with an expiratory pressure preset of 5 cm H2O on the BiPAP S/T-D. Using the CP-100 pulmonary monitor, we compared the total work of breathing (WOB), the pressure-time index (PTP), and other pulmonary mechanics and gas exchange parameters between the two modes.

RESULTS: The WOB injoules per liter (mean +/- SE) (0.76+/-0.08 vs 0.73+/-0.08, p = 0.70), the WOB in joules per minute (8.62+/-1.06 vs 8.11+/-0.96, p = 0.60), and the PTP in cm H2O/s/min (187+/-18 vs 167+/-18, p = 0.21) between the BiPAP S/T-D and the Servo Ventilator 900C were not statistically different. There were statistically significant differences between the two ventilators in auto-PEEP (1.34+/-0.37 vs 0.88+/-0.30 cm H2O, p = 0.03), duty cycle (0.44+/-0.01 vs 0.37+/-0.01, p < 0.001), and expiratory airway resistance (11.81+/-1.53 vs 8.75+/-1.22 cm H2O/L/s, p < 0.001), but not in respiratory rate (27.48+/-1.54 vs 28.06+/-1.61 breaths/min, p = 0.40) or in minute ventilation (10.43+/-0.59 vs 10.27+/-0.37 L/min, p = 0.66). There was a statistically significant difference in the ratio of Pa(O2) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (F(IO2)) (333+/-21 vs 300+/-22, p < 0.03) but not in Pa(CO2) (48+/-2 vs 47+/-2 mm Hg, p = 0.59) between the BiPAP S/T-D and the Servo Ventilator 900C.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in initiating and maintaining the inspiratory and expiratory phases, in breathing circuits, and in ventilator circuits between the two ventilators, the performance of the BiPAP S/T-D is equally efficacious to that of a conventional mechanical ventilator in supporting respiratory muscles. Thus, the BiPAP S/T-D is safe and effective when used in mechanically ventilated patients recovering from acute respiratory failure who do not require total ventilatory support.

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