CLINICAL TRIAL
JOURNAL ARTICLE
MULTICENTER STUDY
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Anti-B-cell monoclonal antibody treatment of severe posttransplant B-lymphoproliferative disorder: prognostic factors and long-term outcome.

Blood 1998 November 2
B-lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) is a rare but severe complication of organ and bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Profound cytotoxic T-cell deficiency is thought to allow the outgrowth of Epstein-Barr virus-transformed B cells. When possible, reduction of immunosuppressive treatment or surgery for localized disease may cure BLPD. Therapeutic approaches using chemotherapy or antiviral drugs have limited effects on survival. Adoptive immunotherapy with donor T-cell infusions has given promising results in BMT recipients. We previously reported that administration of two monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies (anti-CD21 and anti-CD24) could contribute to the control of oligoclonal BLPD. Here we report the long-term results of treatment with these monoclonal anti-B-cell antibodies for cases of severe BLPD. In an open multicenter trial, 58 patients in whom aggressive B-cell lymphoproliferative disorder developed after BMT (n = 27) or organ (n = 31) transplantation received 0.2 mg/kg/d of specific anti-CD21 and anti-CD24 murine monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) for 10 days. The treatment was well tolerated. Thirty-six of the 59 episodes of BLPD in the 58 patients presented complete remission (61%). The relapse rate was low (3 of 36, 8%). Multivariate analysis identified the following risk factors for partial or no response to anti-B-cell MoAb therapy: multivisceral disease (P </= .005), central nervous system involvement (P </= .05), and late onset of BLPD (P </= .005). The overall long-term survival was 46% (median follow-up, 61 months); it was lower among BMT patients (35%) than organ transplant patients (55%). None of the patients who had received BMT for hematological malignancy survived for 1 year. Eight of these 11 patients presented monoclonal BLPD. Tumor burden was the only other variable that contributed significantly to poor survival. Thus, as assessed from this long-term study, the use of anti-B-cell MoAbs therefore appears to be a safe and relatively effective therapy for severe posttransplant BLPD.

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