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JOURNAL ARTICLE

Sleep in relation to age, sex, and chronotype in Japanese workers

Y M Park, K Matsumoto, Y J Seo, H Shinkoda, K P Park
Perceptual and Motor Skills 1998, 87 (1): 199-215
9760647
The Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and Life Habits Inventory were administered to 622 Japanese workers matched for sex and age. We investigated the distributions of the scores on the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire and sleep-wake habits by age and sex. Subjects were classified into five age groups and three chronotypes. The distributions and mean scores on the questionnaire advanced slightly toward the Morning type from the young to the aged group. The habitual bedtimes and waking times were significantly earlier in all the chronotypes from the young to the aged group, and the preferred bedtimes and waking times were also clearly earlier from the young to the aged group. The length of sleep was shorter for the Evening than the Morning types, especially in the group below 24 yr. The differences in habitual and preferred sleep length were greater than 1 hour for all age groups, especially the two groups under 34 yr. The number of awakenings during night sleep increased from the young to the aged group for all chronotypes. The older Evening type tended more toward frequent napping and longer naptime. The variabilities of bedtime and sleep length were larger for the young and Evening type than for the old group and Morning types. Further, the mood upon waking and satisfaction with sleep length were better in the aged Evening type than the young Morning type. The women under 44 yr. woke up earlier than the men of the same age, and the women of the 35-54 yr. groups had a shorter length of sleep than others. These may be related to childcare and housework. These results indicated that the phase of circadian rhythms had moved forward from the young to the aged group, and the individual's rhythm, of those that were aged Morning types, showed better agreement with sleep-wake rhythms than did others.

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