Treatment of relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation with unmanipulated G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cell preparation

W Siegert, J Beyer, D Kingreen, R Blasczyk, H Baurmann, N Schwella, J Schleicher, A Kirsch, D Huhn
Bone Marrow Transplantation 1998, 22 (6): 579-83
Donor lymphocyte infusions (DLI) are an effective treatment of leukemia relapse after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Undesired side-effects are the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and the occurrence of pancytopenia in some patients. In a pilot study, we investigated if unmanipulated G-CSF-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells which naturally contain large numbers of T lymphocytes (D-PBSC/LI) would be equally effective or even superior than DLI in generating a graft-versus-leukemia reaction (GVL) but could mitigate or prevent the development of pancytopenia. We treated 12 patients with CML chronic phase (n = 5), CML blast crisis (n = 2), AML (n = 2), ALL (n = 1), CLL (n = 1) and multiple myeloma (n = 1). In five patients with acute leukemia or CML blast crisis D-PBSC/LI followed intensive chemotherapy (group A), in seven patients D-PBSC/LI were given without any prior chemotherapy (group B). In group A two patients were evaluable for hematologic toxicity. Leukopenia <1000/microl lasted for 10 and 19 days, and thrombocytopenia <20,000/microl for 11 and 13 days, respectively. In group B leukopenia <1000/microl and thrombocytopenia <20,000/microl was observed in only one patient. Moderate cytopenia developed in four of five evaluable patients. A complete remission could be achieved in all seven patients with CML who all developed acute and/or chronic GVHD. None of the remaining five patients achieved a complete remission despite acute and/or chronic GVHD in two of them. Four patients died from disease progression, one patient from a secondary lymphoma, and one patient as a result of uncontrolled GVHD. In conclusion, D-PBSC/LI is effective in inducing GVL reaction but it does not prevent pancytopenia in each case. It remains unclear if it mitigates the incidence and severity of pancytopenia.

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