A phase I trial of standard and cyclophosphamide dose-escalated CHOP with granulocyte colony stimulating factor in elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma

R M Meyer, M Gyger, R Langley, B Lespérance, S N Caplan
Leukemia & Lymphoma 1998, 30 (5): 591-600
The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of using standard and escalated doses of cyclophosphamide with doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (CHOP) plus granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) to treat elderly patients who have advanced stage intermediate grade lymphoma. Consenting patients age > or = 65 years who had an acceptable performance status and adequate cardiac, renal and liver function were eligible for this Phase I study. G-CSF, 5 ug per kg, was given daily with each cycle from day 2 until neutrophil recovery of > or = 10 x 10(9)/L. Ten patients received standard CHOP; sequential cohorts of 5 patients were then to be given CHOP with cyclophosphamide doses of 900, 1050, 1200, and 1350 mg/m2. If 2 patients had dose limiting toxicity, cohorts were expanded to 10 patients; if 3 patients within a cohort had dose limiting toxicity, the previous dose level was considered the maximum tolerated dose of cyclophosphamide. Secondary outcomes were average relative received dose intensity, response, progression-free and overall survival, toxicity, hospitalizations and transfusions. Eight patients (80%) completed 6 cycles of standard CHOP plus G-CSF. Therapy was stopped prematurely in 2 patients due to pneumonia (1) and disease progression (1). Six of 11 patients (55%) given CHOP with cyclophosphamide 900 mg/m2 (CHOP-900) completed treatment. Therapy was stopped in 5 patients due to a toxic death from infection (1), cumulative fatigue (3), and pneumonitis (1). Further dose escalations were not attempted due to the inability to complete 6 treatment cycles in 45% of CHOP-900 cases. The received dose intensities of cyclophosphamide relative to standard CHOP measured over the actual time on therapy were 96% with standard CHOP and 115% with CHOP-900. At 3 years, progression free survival is 40% with standard CHOP and 82% with CHOP-900; overall survivals are 40% and 91% respectively. Neutropenia of < 1.0 x 10(9)/L occurred in 47% of treatment cycles with standard CHOP and in 77% with CHOP-900. In both groups, the mean duration of neutropenia was < 2 days. From these studies we conclude that, standard CHOP with G-CSF can be safely given to elderly patients. Escalating the dose of cyclophos

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