MULTICENTER STUDY
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Malignant lymphoma involving the prostate: report of 62 cases.

Cancer 1998 August 16
BACKGROUND: Malignant lymphoma involving the prostate is rare, and to the authors' knowledge the factors determining patient outcome have not been studied in a large series.

METHODS: The authors evaluated the clinical and pathologic findings in 60 cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and 2 cases of Hodgkin's lymphoma involving the prostate. A variety of clinical and histologic findings were considered as factors predictive of patient outcome.

RESULTS: Lymphoma tended to occur in elderly men, with a mean age at diagnosis of 62 years (range, 5-89 years), although 6 patients were age < 40 years (ages 5, 19, 30, 32, 38, and 38 years, respectively). Clinical signs and symptoms were due to lower urinary tract obstruction. Twenty-two patients (35%) presented with primary extranodal lymphoma of the prostate with a variety of histologic subtypes, including small lymphocytic (4 patients); follicular center cell, diffuse, small cell (2 patients); follicular center cell, Grade 1 (according to the revised European-American classification (small cleaved) (1 patient); Grade 2 (mixed) (1 patient); diffuse large B-cell (12 patients); and high grade B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt-like (2 patients). At the time of presentation, none of these patients had hepatosplenomegaly, inguinal lymphadenopathy, or an abnormal complete blood count. Thirty other patients (48%) with previously documented lymphoma at other sites developed prostatic involvement; these secondary prostatic lymphomas displayed a variety of subtypes, including small lymphocytic (8 patients, all with concomitant leukemia); follicular center cell lymphoma, diffuse, small cell (2 patients); follicular center, Grade 1 (small cell) (1 patient); follicular center, Grade 2 (1 patient); diffuse large B-cell (11 patients); peripheral T-cell lymphoma (2 patients); high grade B-cell lymphoma, Burkitt-like (1 patient); Burkitt's lymphoma (1 patient); Hodgkin's lymphoma (nodular sclerosing [1 patient] and mixed cellularity [1 patient]); and unknown (1 patient). Ten cases were not classifiable as primary or secondary lymphomas. Twenty-five patients died of malignant lymphoma, 14 died of unknown or other causes, 18 patients were alive 12-20 months after diagnosis (8 primary and 10 secondary tumors; 3 had persistent lymphoma; all treated since 1981), and 5 were lost to follow-up. Lymphoma specific survival was 64% at 1 year (95% confidence interval [CI], 51-80%), 50% at 2 years (95% CI, 36-68%), 33% at 5 years, 33% at 10 years, and 16% at 15 years. There was no difference in median survival after diagnosis of prostatic involvement between primary and secondary lymphoma (23 months vs. 28 months, respectively) or among histologic types.

CONCLUSIONS: Although malignant lymphoma involving the prostate is rare, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lower urinary tract obstruction, particularly in patients with a previous history of lymphoma.

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