REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Current therapies for achalasia: comparison and efficacy.

Achalasia is a primary esophageal motor disorder of unknown etiology producing complaints of dysphagia, regurgitation, and chest pain. The current treatments for achalasia involve the reduction of lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure resulting in improved esophageal emptying. Calcium channel blockers and nitrates, once used as initial treatment strategy for early achalasia, are now only used in patients who are not candidates for pneumatic dilation or surgery and those not responding to botulinum toxin injections. By virtue of the more rigid balloons, the current pneumatic dilators are more effective and have better efficacy than the older more compliant balloons. The graded approach to pneumatic dilation using the Rigiflex balloons (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 cm) are now the most commonly used nonsurgical means of treating patients with achalasia, resulting in symptom improvement in up to 90% of patients. Surgical myotomy, once with high morbidity and long hospital stay, can now be performed laparoscopically with similar efficacy to the open surgical approach (94% vs. 84%, respectively), reduced morbidity, and hospitalization time. Given the advances in both balloon dilation and laparoscopic myotomy, most patients with achalasia can now choose between these two equally efficacious treatment options. Botulinum toxin injection of the LES should be reserved for patients who cannot undergo balloon dilation and are not surgical candidates.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app