Value of T-wave direction with lead III ST-segment depression in acute anterior wall myocardial infarction: electrocardiographic prediction of a "wrapped" left anterior descending artery

A Porter, S Sclarovsky, T Ben-Gal, I Herz, A Solodky, A Sagie
Clinical Cardiology 1998, 21 (8): 562-6

BACKGROUND: Lead III ST-segment depression during acute anterior wall myocardial infarction (AMI) has been attributed to reciprocal changes. However, the value of the T-wave direction (positive or negative) in predicting the site of obstruction and type of the left anterior descending (LAD) artery is not clear and has not been studied before.

HYPOTHESIS: The aim of the study was to assess retrospectively the correlation between two patterns of lead III ST-segment depression, and type of LAD artery and its level of obstruction during first AMI.

METHODS: The study group consisted of 48 consecutive patients, admitted to the coronary care unit for first AMI, who showed ST-segment elevation in lead a VL and ST-segment depression in lead III on admission 12-lead electrocardiogram. The patients were divided by T-wave direction into Group 1 (n = 31), negative T wave, and Group 2 (n = 17), positive T wave. The coronary angiogram was evaluated for type of LAD ("wrapped", i.e., surrounding the apex or not), site of obstruction (pre- or postdiagonal branch), and other significant coronary artery obstructions.

RESULTS: Mean lead III ST-segment depression was 1.99 +/- 1.32 mm in Group 1 and 1.13 +/- 0.74 mm in Group 2 (p = 0.004); mean ST-segment elevation in a VL was 1.35 +/- 0.84 mm and 1.23 +/- 0.5 mm, respectively (p = 0.5). A wrapped LAD was found in 12 patients (38.7%) in Group 1 and in 13 in Group 2 (76.4%) (p = 0.02). The sensitivity of lead III ST-segment depression with positive T wave to predict a wrapped LAD was 52%, and the specificity was 82% with a positive predictive value of 76%. On angiography, 25 patients (80%) in Group 1 and 13 (76%) in Group 2 had prediagonal occlusion of the LAD (p = 0.77). No significant difference between groups was found for right and circumflex coronary artery involvement or incidence of multivessel disease.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of lead III ST-segment depression with positive T wave associated with ST-segment elevation in a VL in the early course of AMI can serve as an early electrocardiographic marker of prediagonal occlusion of a "wrapped" LAD.

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