JOURNAL ARTICLE

Effects of L-triiodothyronine and the thyromimetic L-94901 on serum lipoprotein levels and hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptor, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, and apo A-I gene expression

G C Ness, D Lopez, C M Chambers, W P Newsome, P Cornelius, C A Long, H J Harwood
Biochemical Pharmacology 1998 July 1, 56 (1): 121-9
9698096
The mechanisms by which thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine (T3)) and a thyromimetic, 2-amino-3-(3,5-dibromo-4-[4-hydroxy-3-(6-oxo-1,6-dihydro-pyridazin -3-ylmethyl)-phenoxyl]-phenyl)propionic acid (L-94901), lower plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and raise plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels was investigated in thyroidectomized and sham-operated rats. Thyroidectomy resulted in a 77% increase in plasma LDL cholesterol, a 60% decrease in plasma triglycerides, and a modest reduction in HDL cholesterol. Daily oral dosing with T3 (10-170 nmol/kg) or L94901 (100-1000 nmol/kg) for 7 days decreased plasma LDL cholesterol in thyroidectomized rats by 60-80%, respectively. This reduction in LDL cholesterol was accompanied by a dose-dependent increase in HDL cholesterol levels of up to 60%. Thus, the ratio of LDL to HDL was decreased from 1.01 to 0.12 after treatment with L-94901 and to 0.25 after dosing with T3. In sham-operated animals, T3 and L-94901 lowered LDL cholesterol by 61 and 46%, respectively, and increased HDL cholesterol by 25 and 53%, respectively. Immunoblotting analysis of liver membranes prepared from thyroidectomized or sham-operated rats demonstrated that LDL receptor protein levels were increased by up to eight-fold. Northern blotting analysis revealed similar large increases in hepatic LDL receptor mRNA levels that accounted for the increases in LDL receptor protein levels. Hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase mRNA, protein, and activity were increased 2- to 3-fold. The T3- and L-94901-mediated increases in serum HDL levels were associated with 2- to 3-fold increases in apo A-I mRNA levels. In contrast with most other hypocholesterolemic agents, T3 and L-94901 significantly increase HDL cholesterol levels in addition to decreasing LDL cholesterol levels due to induction of hepatic apo A-I and LDL receptor gene expression.

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