REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Management of parapneumonic effusions.

When a patient with a parapneumonic pleural effusion is first evaluated, a therapeutic thoracentesis should be performed if more than a minimal amount of pleural fluid is present. Fluid obtained at the therapeutic thoracentesis should be gram-stained and cultured and analyzed for glucose, pH, LDH, white blood cells, and differential cell count. If the fluid cannot be drained because of loculations, a chest tube should be inserted and thrombolytic agents administered. If the pleural fluid recurs after the initial therapeutic thoracentesis but the patient is doing well clinically and the initial pleural fluid glucose was greater than 60 mg/dL; the pH, greater than 7.2; the LDH, less than three times the upper normal limit for serum and the cultures are negative; he or she can be observed. If one or more of the aforementioned criteria are not met, a second therapeutic thoracentesis should be performed, with repeat diagnostic evaluations of the pleural fluid. If the fluid recurs a second time, a small chest tube should be placed if the pleural fluid glucose and pH were lower and the LDH higher on the second thoracentesis than on the first thoracentesis. Patients with loculated-parapneumonic effusions should be treated with tube thoracostomy and thrombolytic agents. If drainage is incomplete, thoracoscopy, with breakdown of adhesions and debridement of the pleural space, is indicated. If thoracoscopy is unsuccessful, then thoracotomy, with decortication, is indicated unless the patient is too debilitated.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app