JOURNAL ARTICLE
REVIEW

Protein kinase C activation and the development of diabetic complications

D Koya, G L King
Diabetes 1998, 47 (6): 859-66
9604860
Recent studies have identified that the activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and increased diacylglycerol (DAG) levels initiated by hyperglycemia are associated with many vascular abnormalities in retinal, renal, and cardiovascular tissues. Among the various PKC isoforms, the beta- and delta-isoforms appear to be activated preferentially in the vasculatures of diabetic animals, although other PKC isoforms are also increased in the renal glomeruli and retina. The glucose-induced activation of PKC has been shown to increase the production of extracellular matrix and cytokines; to enhance contractility, permeability, and vascular cell proliferation; to induce the activation of cytosolic phospholipase A2; and to inhibit Na+-K+-ATPase. The synthesis and characterization of a specific inhibitor for PKC-beta isoforms have confirmed the role of PKC activation in mediating hyperglycemic effects on vascular cells, as described above, and provide in vivo evidence that PKC activation could be responsible for abnormal retinal and renal hemodynamics in diabetic animals. Transgenic mice overexpressing PKC-beta isoform in the myocardium developed cardiac hypertrophy and failure, further supporting the hypothesis that PKC-beta isoform activation can cause vascular dysfunctions. Interestingly, hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress may also mediate the adverse effects of PKC-beta isoforms by the activation of the DAG-PKC pathway, since treatment with D-alpha-tocopherol was able to prevent many glucose-induced vascular dysfunctions and inhibit DAG-PKC activation. Clinical studies are now in progress to determine whether PKC-beta inhibition can prevent diabetic complications.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
9604860
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"