Maxillary sinus augmentation using different grafting materials and dental implants in monkeys. Part I. Evaluation of anorganic bovine-derived bone matrix

M B Hürzeler, C R Quiñones, A Kirsch, C Gloker, P Schüpbach, J R Strub, R G Caffesse
Clinical Oral Implants Research 1997, 8 (6): 476-86
The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically, histologically and histometrically the use of anorganic bovine bone matrix (i.e. Bio-oss) as a grafting material for maxillary sinus augmentation procedures. In 4 adult male rhesus monkeys (i.e. Macaca mulatta) the 1st, 2nd and 3rd maxillary molars on one side of the jaws were extracted. The remaining bone between the alveolar crest and the bottom of the sinus was then reduced to 3-4 mm. After 3 months, maxillary sinus augmentation procedures were performed on one side of the jaws in each monkey and the sinuses were grafted with the bovine bone matrix. At that time, 2 IMZ pure titanium plasma coated implants were immediately placed into the augmented sinuses (i.e. simultaneous implants-loaded group). After 4 months, 2 additional similar implants were placed into these previously augmented sinuses (i.e. delayed implants-loaded group). Four months later, the abutment connection was performed and all 4 implants were loaded with a gold-alloy bridge for 6 months (i.e. until sacrifice of the animals). The contralateral side of each monkey received the same treatment with the exception that the extractions were performed 7 months after those in the opposite side and that the implants in this side were not loaded. Thus, 2 additional study groups (i.e. simultaneous implants-unloaded group and delayed implants-unloaded group) were obtained. Clinically, all loaded implants were stable at the day of sacrifice. Histologically, the grafted sinuses exhibited significant bone formation with integration of the bovine bone matrix particles to the new bone. Direct mineralized bone-to-implant contact was greater for the delayed implant placement groups than for the implants installed simultaneously with the sinus augmentation. Furthermore, the percentage of direct mineralized bone-to-implant contact was greater in the residual bone than in the augmented area. It was concluded that the anorganic bovine bone matrix facilitated bone formation and implant osseointegration in the augmented sinuses and that the delayed implant placement in combination with the sinus augmentation procedure seemed to be preferable.

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