Nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast. Cytologic features

B Vicandi, J A Jiménez-Heffernan, P López-Ferrer, L Ortega, J M Viguer
Acta Cytologica 1998, 42 (2): 335-41

OBJECTIVE: To define and discuss the cytologic findings in six cases of nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH) of the breast.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective evaluation of the medical records, cytologic and histologic material from six patients with palpable mammary PASH. Cases in which PASH was associated with other predominant mammary lesions were not included in the study.

RESULTS: A total of six patients with histologically proven PASH underwent aspiration in nine occasions (three patients studied twice). Clinically, five patients were diagnosed as having fibroadenoma or another benign lesion, and in one patient carcinoma was suspected. In two patients, mammography disclosed rapid growth of the lesion. Seven aspirations, performed on five patients, were diagnosed as fibroadenoma (n = 5) or fibroadenomatous lesion (n = 2). An eighth aspiration was cystic and reported as fibrocystic disease. The last case was erroneously diagnosed as suspicious for carcinoma. Even after revision, the cytologic similarities of PASH with fibroadenoma were remarkable. Most smears were less cellular than those of conventional fibroadenomas. Epithelial clusters showed variable size, with a predominance of medium to small groups. Stromal elements were minimal or absent. Background cellularity was composed of round to oval naked nuclei and others with spindle shapes. Occasional epithelial clusters showed cellular dissociation and slight atypia.

CONCLUSION: Due to the absence of specific cytologic features and similarities to fibroadenoma, a precise diagnosis of PASH cannot be made on cytologic material. However, the majority of cases can be diagnosed correctly as benign, allowing appropiate treatment.

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