Effects of lisinopril and nifedipine on the progression to overt albuminuria in IDDM patients with incipient nephropathy and normal blood pressure. The Italian Microalbuminuria Study Group in IDDM

G Crepaldi, Q Carta, G Deferrari, R Mangili, R Navalesi, F Santeusanio, A Spalluto, A Vanasia, G M Villa, R Nosadini
Diabetes Care 1998, 21 (1): 104-10

OBJECTIVE: Intervention trials on renal function in IDDM patients with microalbuminuria (MA) should adopt the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as an outcome measure. However, normotensive IDDM patients with MA show no change in GFR over a follow-up period of 10 years. Thus, in the present study, we used the cumulative incidence of progression to albuminuria (albumin excretion rate [AER] > 200 micrograms/min) from MA as the primary endpoint and the yearly increase in AER at a rate of 50% above baseline as the secondary end-point of renal function.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Ninety-two normotensive IDDM patients underwent double-blind, double-dummy treatment with either lisinopril or slow-release nifedipine in comparison with placebo. Ten patients discontinued the study during the 3-year follow-up period.

RESULTS: During the 3-year follow-up period, 7 of 34 placebo-treated (20.6%), 2 of 32 lisinopril-treated (6.3%), and 2 of 26 nifedipine-treated (7.7%) patients progressed to clinical albuminuria (Fisher's exact test, P < 0.03). Time-to-event analysis indicated a reduction in the risk of progression to macroalbuminuria of 58.1% (95% CI 27.8-68.4%) in the 32 patients on lisinopril (P < 0.02) and of 62.5% (95% CI 32.5-73.4%) in the 26 patients on nifedipine (P < 0.02) after adjustment for mean blood pressure, glycated hemoglobin, and baseline AER in comparison with the 34 patients on placebo. Baseline AER was 71 micrograms/min (range: 20.7-187.3) in progressors and 73 micrograms/min (range: 20.2-174.1) in nonprogressors (NS). The percentage of patients who showed a > 50% yearly increase of AER above baseline values was significantly lower in the lisinopril group (13 of 32, 40.6%, P < 0.02), but not in the nifedipine group (15 of 26, 57.7%), than in the placebo group (23 of 34, 67.6%). The lisinopril group had significantly lower blood pressure values during follow-up than either the nifedipine (P < 0.05) or the placebo (P < 0.01) group.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that both lisinopril and nifedipine are effective in delaying the occurrence of macroalbuminuria in normotensive IDDM patients with MA. As overt proteinuria strongly predicts end-stage renal failure, both treatments appear capable of preventing such a complication in normotensive IDDM patients with MA. However, lisinopril appears more powerful in slowing the course of nephropathy.

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