The Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis: a ten-year experience with chronic peritoneal dialysis catheters

S Rinaldi, F Sera, E Verrina, A Edefonti, F Perfumo, P Sorino, G Zacchello, B Andreetta, G Ardissino, S Bassi, G Capasso, D A Caringella, B Gianoglio, R Gusmano, G Rizzoni
Peritoneal Dialysis International 1998, 18 (1): 71-4

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the data from 347 peritoneal catheters implanted in 249 pediatric patients aged < or = 15 years at start of chronic peritoneal dialysis (CPD).

DESIGN: Restrospective study of the data collected between 1986 and 1995, in 20 dialysis centers, from the Italian Registry of Pediatric Chronic Peritoneal Dialysis. Data collection for each pediatric catheter included: catheter type, site and technique of insertion, complications, duration, and reason for removal or replacement.

RESULTS: Fifty catheters were inserted in patients under 2 years of age, 50 in patients aged 2 - 5 years and 247 in patients over 5 years of age. Catheter types included 307 (88.5%) Tenckhoff (286 double cuff, 21 single cuff) and 40 (11.5%), double-cuff, Valli-type catheters. All catheters were surgically implanted and omentectomy was performed in 83.5% of cases; the entry-site was in the midline in 136 cases (39.2%) and paramedian in 211 (60.8%). During 6076 CPD months we observed 274 catheter-related complications: 182 catheter infections (exit-site and/or tunnel infection), 23 leakages, 19 obstructions, 19 cuff-extrusions, 14 dislocations, 6 hemoperitoneum, 10 other (incidence of one complication every 21.8 dialysis-months). A significant reduction of catheter-related complications occurred in the last five years, compared with the first 5 years. One hundred and six catheters were removed due to catheter-related causes: infection (83 cases), obstruction (11), dislocation (4), outer-cuff extrusion (3), leakage (2), bowel incarceration (2), and bowel infarction (1). Catheter survival was 72.2% at 12 months, 52.3% at 24 months, 32.8% at 36 months, and 25.7% at 48 months. Significantly lower catheter survival was found in younger children (0 - 2 years) compared with two other age groups (2 - 5 years, and > 5 years). No significant correlation was found between catheter survival and catheter entry-site (midline vs paramedian).

CONCLUSIONS: Catheter-related infections were confirmed to be the most common complication and most frequent cause of peritoneal catheter removal. In addition, catheter survival rate was worse in younger children, indicating that more effort should be made to improve peritoneal catheter survival particularly in this age group.

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