JOURNAL ARTICLE
RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
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Enhanced control of an outbreak of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia with azithromycin prophylaxis.

There are currently no recommended epidemic-control measures for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia outbreaks in closed communities. Previous studies have suggested the usefulness of chemoprophylaxis administered to close contacts of case-patients. To evaluate the effectiveness of various epidemic-control measures during an institutional outbreak, an observational study was undertaken during a very large outbreak of M. pneumoniae pneumonia at a facility for developmentally disabled residents (n = 142 cases). Control measures evaluated included no control, standard epidemic-control measures, and targeted azithromycin prophylaxis (500 mg on day 1, 250 mg/day on days 2-5) plus standard epidemic-control measures. The combined use of azithromycin prophylaxis and standard epidemic-control measures was associated with a significant reduction in the secondary attack rate. This study suggests that the addition of antibiotic prophylaxis to standard epidemic-control measures can be useful during institutional outbreaks of M. pneumoniae pneumonia.

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