Molecular mechanisms of angiotensin II in modulating cardiac function: intracardiac effects and signal transduction pathways

D E Dostal, R A Hunt, C E Kule, G J Bhat, V Karoor, C D McWhinney, K M Baker
Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 1997, 29 (11): 2893-902
Angiotensin II (Ang II), the effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), regulates volume and electrolyte homeostasis and is involved in cardiac and vascular cellular growth in humans and other species. This system, which has been conserved throughout evolution, plays an important role in cardiac and vascular pathology associated with hypertension, coronary heart disease, myocarditis and congestive heart failure. The traditional RAS is viewed as a system in which circulating Ang II is delivered to target organs and cells. However, in the past decade, a local RAS has been described in cardiac cells, providing evidence for autocrine and paracrine pathways by which biological actions of Ang II could be mediated. The critical actions of Ang II are mediated primarily through the AT1, G-protein (guanylyl nucleotide binding protein) coupled receptor. In addition to coupling to conventional G-protein signal transduction pathways, the AT1 receptor was recently shown to increase the tyrosine phosphorylation of several intracellular substrates, including the STAT (Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription) family of novel transcription factors, in rat cardiac fibroblasts, myocytes and vascular smooth muscle cells, and AT1 receptor transfected CHO cells. It has been shown that Ang II stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Stat1 (Stat 91) and Stat3 (Stat 92). Angiotensin II acting directly through the AT1 receptor, induces the formation of a complex of STAT proteins termed SIF (sis-inducing factor) which binds the DNA sequence, SIE (sis-inducing element) present in the promotor element of many genes. This provides evidence for a direct role of Ang II in mediating inflammatory and remodeling responses through the JAK-STAT pathway. Thus, it is likely that the JAK-STAT pathway has an important role in Ang II-mediated effects on gene transcription, cardiac and vascular cellular growth/development, and inflammatory responses.

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