RESEARCH SUPPORT, U.S. GOV'T, P.H.S.
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Bacterial meningitis in the United States in 1995. Active Surveillance Team.

BACKGROUND: Before the introduction of the conjugate vaccines, Haemophilus influenzae type b was the major cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, and meningitis was primarily a disease of infants and young children. We describe the epidemiologic features of bacterial meningitis five years after the H. influenzae type b conjugate vaccines were licensed for routine immunization of infants.

METHODS: Data were collected from active, population-based surveillance for culture-confirmed meningitis and other invasive bacterial disease during 1995 in laboratories serving all the acute care hospitals in 22 counties of four states (total population, more than 10 million). The rates were compared with those for 1986 obtained by similar surveillance.

RESULTS: On the basis of 248 cases of bacterial meningitis in the surveillance areas, the rates of meningitis (per 100,000) for the major pathogens in 1995 were Streptococcus pneumoniae, 1.1; Neisseria meningitidis, 0.6; group B streptococcus, 0.3; Listeria monocytogenes, 0.2; and H. influenzae, 0.2. Group B streptococcus was the predominant pathogen among newborns, N. meningitidis among children 2 to 18 years old, and S. pneumoniae among adults. Pneumococcal meningitis had the highest case fatality rate (21 percent) and in 36 percent of cases was caused by organisms that were not susceptible to penicillin. From these data, we estimate that 5755 cases of bacterial meningitis were caused by these five pathogens in the United States in 1995, as compared with 12,920 cases in 1986, a reduction of 55 percent. The median age of persons with bacterial meningitis increased greatly, from 15 months in 1986 to 25 years in 1995, largely as a result of a 94 percent reduction in the number of cases of H. influenzae meningitis.

CONCLUSIONS: Because of the vaccine-related decline in meningitis due to H. influenzae type b, bacterial meningitis in the United States is now a disease predominantly of adults rather than of infants and young children.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app