[Factors associated with peritoneal dialysis catheter failure in chronic renal insufficiency]

A Leaños-Miranda, J Garduño-Espinosa, M C Martínez-García
Revista de Investigación Clínica; Organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición 1997, 49 (3): 189-95

AIM: To determine the frequency, time of occurrence and factors associated with the failure of the permanent peritoneal catheter during dialysis in cases of chronic renal failure (CRF).

MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective cohort under a nested case control design was studied at a second level health care unit of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. A total of 149 catheters, double cushion straight Tenckhoff type, were evaluated in 74 patients with CRF due to diabetic nephropathy in 36/74 patients (49%). Information concerning functionality time and causes of catheter failure as well as the clinical and technical factors concerning insertion were obtained from the clinical chart.

RESULTS: The cumulated time of dialysis was 814 months. Catheter failure occurred in 101 cases (68%): 67 due to obstruction, 24 due to infection, to leakage in 6 and to other causes in 4. Those of non-infectious origin were more frequent (p < 0.01). In the first month post-insertion there was a higher number of failures than after one month, (p < 0.0005). The global functionality of the catheter at one month, one and two years was 55%, 31% and 16%, respectively. There was a greater permanence of the catheters in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis than in intermittent peritoneal dialysis (p = 0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the frequency of the peritoneal catheter failure was high; that the most frequent cause was due to non-infectious complications during the first month of insertion; and the factor associated to catheter failure was intermittent peritoneal dialysis as compared to continuous ambulatory dialysis.

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