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Urinary tract infection in urology, including acute and chronic prostatitis.

Heightened awareness of patients with increased risk for severe or potentially severe UTIs is paramount for early diagnosis and treatment. Urologic assessment of these patients is frequently necessary for cure and to prevent significant sequelae. Unresolved infections are usually caused by resistant bacteria and are treated by modification of therapy based on antimicrobial sensitivity testing. When unresolved bacteriuria is caused by organisms sensitive to the initial antimicrobial therapy, azotemia or a large bacterial mass density should be suspected. Recurrent infections at close intervals or with the same organism are usually caused by a bacterial focus in an acquired or congenital abnormality of the urinary tract, such as infection stones. The bacterial focus must be removed to cure the recurrent infections. If the bacterial focus within the urinary tract cannot be removed, long-term, low-dose antimicrobial suppression will prevent the morbidity of recurrent infections. Reinfection requires careful bacteriologic monitoring and low-dose prophylactic, intermittent, or postintercourse antimicrobial therapy. In the setting of prostatitis syndrome, the patient must first be classified into one of three categories: bacterial prostatitis, nonbacterial prostatitis, or pelviperineal pain syndrome. Bacterial prostatitis frequently responds to appropriate antimicrobial agents, whereas nonbacterial prostatitis and pelviperineal pain require an empiric multimodal approach.

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