REVIEW
Add like
Add dislike
Add to saved papers

Current concepts in the embryology of anorectal malformations.

Today, the normal and abnormal development of the hindgut is still a matter of speculation. However, owing to recent studies in appropriate animal models, most embryological events that finally lead to abnormal hindgut development are better known than in the past: (1) The process of maldevelopment starts early in the embryo. (2) The cloacal membrane always is too short in its dorsal part. Thus the dorsal cloaca is missing too. (3) As a result, the hindgut remains attached to the sinus urogenitalis, thus forming the recto-urethral fistula. In the past, an impaired process of septation was believed to be the main cause of abnormal hindgut development. In contrast to this, our results indicate that the development of the septum is more passive than active. Further results of our studies in normal and abnormal development indicate that (1) the embryonic cloaca never passes through a stage that is similar to any form of anorectal malformation in neonates, including the so-called "cloacas" in females, and (2) to explain abnormal development, studies in abnormal embryos are mandatory.

Full text links

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Group 7SearchHeart failure treatmentPapersTopicsCollectionsEffects of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Patients With Heart Failure Importance: Only 1 class of glucose-lowering agents-sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors-has been reported to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events primarily by reducingSeptember 1, 2017: JAMA CardiologyAssociations of albuminuria in patients with chronic heart failure: findings in the ALiskiren Observation of heart Failure Treatment study.CONCLUSIONS: Increased UACR is common in patients with heart failure, including non-diabetics. Urinary albumin creatininineJul, 2011: European Journal of Heart FailureRandomized Controlled TrialEffects of Liraglutide on Clinical Stability Among Patients With Advanced Heart Failure and Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Randomized Clinical Trial.Review

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app

Read by QxMD is copyright © 2021 QxMD Software Inc. All rights reserved. By using this service, you agree to our terms of use and privacy policy.

Get seemless 1-tap access through your institution/university

For the best experience, use the Read mobile app