Intracellular targeting of exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa via type III-dependent translocation induces phagocytosis resistance, cytotoxicity and disruption of actin microfilaments

E Frithz-Lindsten, Y Du, R Rosqvist, A Forsberg
Molecular Microbiology 1997, 25 (6): 1125-39
Exoenzyme S (ExoS) is an ADP-ribosyltransferase secreted by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The amino-terminal half of ExoS exhibits homology to the YopE cytotoxin of pathogenic Yersinia. Recently, YopE was found to be translocated into the host cell by a bacteria-cell contact-dependent mechanism involving the ysc-encoded type III secretion system. By using an approach in which exoS was expressed in different strains of Yersinia, including secretion and translocation mutants, we could demonstrate that ExoS was secreted and translocated into HeLa cells by a similar mechanism to that described previously for YopE. Similarly to YopE, the presence of ExoS in the host cell elicited a cytotoxic response, correlating with disruption of the actin microfilament structure. A similar cytotoxic response was also induced by a mutated form of ExoS with a more than 2000-fold reduced ADP-ribosyltransferase activity. However, the enzymatically active ExoS elicited a more definite rounding up of the HeLa cells, which also correlated with decreased viability of the cells after prolonged infection compared with cells infected with strains expressing mutated ExoS or YopE. This suggests that ExoS can act through two different mechanisms on the host cell. The expression of ExoS by Yersinia also mediated an anti-phagocytic effect on macrophages. In addition, we present evidence that extracellularly located P. aeruginosa is able to target ExoS into eukaryotic cells. Taken together, our data suggest that P. aeruginosa, by analogy with Yersinia, targets virulence proteins into the eukaryotic cytosol via a type III secretion-dependent mechanism as part of an anti-phagocytic strategy.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article


You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.


Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"