Charge and size selectivity of proteinuria in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome

G M Taylor, T J Neuhaus, V Shah, S Dillon, T M Barratt
Pediatric Nephrology 1997, 11 (4): 404-10
Experimental studies have pointed to charge selectivity as an important determinant of glomerular permeability to macromolecules. Loss of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) polyanion has been proposed as a cause of the selective proteinuria in minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS). However, the presence of less-anionic albumin in urine than plasma from MCNS and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) patients has been interpreted both as evidence for partial maintenance of charge selectivity and for involvement of other pathogenic mechanisms. The exact role of charge selectivity in the pathogenesis of nephrotic proteinuria remains controversial. We have examined the clearance of endogenous proteins of differing size and charge in children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS). Chromatofocusing was used to determine the isoelectric points (pIs) of albumins in paired plasma and urine samples from patients with FSGS (n = 6) and MCNS (n = 6). Charge selectivity was assessed by comparing the pIs of the fractions with the highest albumin concentration (model pI) in plasma and urine. The difference between the modal pIs was defined as the delta modal pI. Charge selectivity was also assessed from the albumin/transferrin and IgG4/IgG1 clearance ratios; size selectivity from the IgG1/albumin and IgG1/transferrin as well as the IgG4/albumin and IgG4/transferrin clearances. In children with FSGS, the mean (+/-SD) delta modal pI was -0.05 +/- 0.16, and in MCNS -0.05 +/- 0.11. Neither value differed significantly from zero. The albumin/transferrin clearance ratio showed no significant difference between FSGS and MCNS, but the IgG4/IgG1 clearance ratio was significantly higher in MCNS (P < 0.05). Size selectivity was significantly reduced in FSGS compared with MCNS (for IgG1/transferrin P < 0.01 and for IgG1/albumin P < 0.05). For IgG4/transferrin and IgG4/albumin, P was < 0.05. In conclusion, there was no evidence for residual charge selectivity in idiopathic NS associated with either MCNS or FSGS during nephrotic-range proteinuria. There was a significant loss of GBM size selectivity in children with FSGS with heavy proteinuria compared with children with MCNS with heavy proteinuria.

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