A practical approach to imaging of the shoulder with emphasis on MR imaging

P F Tirman, L S Steinbach, J P Belzer, F W Bost
Orthopedic Clinics of North America 1997, 28 (4): 483-515
Our understanding of shoulder disorders has changed considerably as a result of improved diagnostic tools, such as arthroscopy and multiplanar imaging modalities. The diagnosis of the cause of shoulder pain can be difficult because a spectrum of disorders, including cervical spine disease, acromioclavicular arthritis, and shoulder instability. Impingement and denervation syndromes can present with similar clinical findings. Accurate depiction of anatomic abnormalities is important for treatment planning. The purpose of this article is to report on the application of available imaging modalities, with emphasis on MR imaging. A strategy for the appropriate use of these studies and their variations of technique is also provided.

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