Cystic lung lesions with systemic arterial blood supply: a hybrid of congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration

D L Cass, T M Crombleholme, L J Howell, P W Stafford, E D Ruchelli, N S Adzick
Journal of Pediatric Surgery 1997, 32 (7): 986-90
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration are congenital lung tumors that are classically described as having distinct embryology, pathology, and natural history. The authors treated six patients who had prenatally diagnosed lung masses that displayed clinicopathologic features of both lesion types. At prenatal diagnosis (19 to 30 weeks' gestation), all six lesions were classified sonographically as congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation, and none of the masses appeared to have a systemic arterial blood supply as seen by color flow Doppler study. Two of the six masses showed size regression antenatally. At the time of surgery, all six lesions had a systemic vessel directly from the aorta--five cases were consistent grossly with an intralobular bronchopulmonary sequestration, and one case was consistent with an extralobular bronchopulmonary sequestration. However, all six lesions displayed congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation histology. Hydrops developed in one fetus with a huge mass, and that fetus underwent successful fetal surgical resection (left lower lobectomy) at 22 weeks' gestation with delivery at 35 weeks' gestation. One neonate with a large extralobular bronchopulmonary sequestration was treated with resection and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) but died of pulmonary hypoplasia. Four other patients who had much smaller masses underwent elective lower lobectomy after birth. These findings emphasize the importance of seeking an anomalous blood supply in patients who have congenital lung lesions. These "hybrid" cases suggest a similar embryological origin for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation and bronchopulmonary sequestration.

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