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Flexor digitorum superficialis: locations of individual muscle bellies for botulinum toxin injections.

Muscle & Nerve 1997 August
Twenty-two Flexor Digitorum Superficialis (FDS) muscles from 18 cadavers were dissected to find the "Optimal Injection Site" (OIS) for botulinum toxin injections to individual bellies of FDS. Coordinates are given as a percentage of the distance along a landmarking line from the medial epicondyle to the pisiform and in millimetres (mm) lateral to it. The OIS were: FDS2: 72%, 14 mm; FDS3: 54%, 17mm; FDS4: 49%, 7mm; FDS5: 76%, 6mm. OIS measurements guide the electromyographer to localize the targeted muscle belly.

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