Hemodynamic response and change in organ blood volume during spinal anesthesia in elderly men with cardiac disease

G A Rooke, P R Freund, A F Jacobson
Anesthesia and Analgesia 1997, 85 (1): 99-105
Aging and disease may make the elderly patient with cardiac disease particularly susceptible to hypotension during spinal anesthesia. We studied 15 men, 59-80 y old, with histories of prior myocardial infarction (n = 9), congestive heart failure (n = 2), and/or stable myocardial ischemia (n = 11) given spinal anesthesia with 50 mg lidocaine in dextrose. Technetium-99m-labeled red blood cell imaging estimated left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) and changes in blood volume in the abdominal organs and legs. Arterial and pulmonary artery catheters provided hemodynamic measurements. Sensory block averaged T4 (range T1-10). Mean arterial pressure decreased 33% +/- 15% (SD) (P < 0.001), secondary to decreases in vascular resistance (SVR), -26% +/- 13% (P < 0.001) and cardiac output, -10% +/- 16% (P = 0.03). EF increased from 53% +/- 11% to 58% +/- 14% (P < 0.001) while left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV) decreased (-19% +/- 9%, P < 0.001). Blood volume increased in the legs (6% +/- 6%, P = 0.006), kidneys (10% +/- 9%, P < 0.001), and mesentery (7% +/- 5%, P 0.001) but not in the liver or spleen. Cardiac function was well maintained. We concluded that the primary mechanism of hypotension was a decrease in SVR, not cardiac output, despite the decrease in LVEDV.

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