JOURNAL ARTICLE

Pentoxifylline and other protein kinase C inhibitors down-regulate HIV-LTR NF-kappa B induced gene expression

D K Biswas, C M Ahlers, B J Dezube, A B Pardee
Molecular Medicine 1994, 1 (1): 31-43
8790599

BACKGROUND: This investigation deals with the molecular mechanism of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) action of pentoxifylline (PTX) [1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3, 7-dimethylxanthine] a drug widely used for the treatment of conditions involving defective regional microcirculation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition by PTX of protein kinase C (PKC) or cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA)-mediated activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) of HIV-1-LTR-regulated reporter gene expression was studied in human CD4+ T lymphocytes (Jurkat) and human embryo kidney cells (293-27-2). A protein kinase C is involved in activation of NF-kappa B in whole cells, identified by using inhibitors specific for PKC- or PKA-catalyzed NF-kappa B activation in whole cell and cell-free systems.

RESULTS: PTX inhibited PKC- or PKA-catalyzed activation of NF-kappa B in cytoplasmic extracts from unstimulated Jurkat or 293-27-2 cells, but not interaction of preactivated NF-kappa B with its motifs. Calphostin C, a specific inhibitor of PKC, inhibited NF-kappa B activation and HIV-1 LTR-driven reporter gene expression in both PMA- and TNF-alpha-treated cells. In contrast, although H88 specifically inhibited PKA activity in the cell-free extract, it did not affect NF-kappa B action in PMA- or TNF-alpha-treated cells.

CONCLUSIONS: The mechanism of inhibitory action of PTX on virus replication and NF-kappa B-induced transactivation of HIV-1 gene expression has been elucidated as due to blocking PKC-dependent PMA- or TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappa B in Jurkat and 293-27-2 cells. Other protein kinase inhibitors may be useful in down regulating transcription of HIV-1 provirus and thereby virus replication in HIV-infected patients.

Full Text Links

Find Full Text Links for this Article

Discussion

You are not logged in. Sign Up or Log In to join the discussion.

Trending Papers

Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
8790599
×

Save your favorite articles in one place with a free QxMD account.

×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"