Prevention of preeclampsia with heparin and antiplatelet drugs in women with renal disease

R A North, C Ferrier, G Gamble, K F Fairley, P Kincaid-Smith
Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 1995, 35 (4): 357-62
In a retrospective cohort study of women with renal disease in pregnancy we investigated if: 1. low dose aspirin reduced the prevalence of preeclampsia and improved fetal outcome compared to no anticoagulant therapy. 2. heparin plus low dose aspirin and/or dipyridamole reduced the prevalence of preeclampsia and improved fetal outcome compared to i. no treatment ii. low dose aspirin alone. Women with renal disease were allocated into 3 groups according to the treatment received during their pregnancies: I. no prophylactic heparin or antiplatelet drugs, n = 76 II. prophylactic low-dose aspirin 75(50-150)mg, n = 27 III. prophylactic subcutaneous heparin 10,000 (5000-12,500) IU b.d. combined with low-dose aspirin 50 (50-150)mg and/or dipyridamole 400 (200-400)mg, n = 44. Preeclampsia and fetal outcome was analysed according to treatment group. Preeclampsia was less common in the heparin group (2.3%) compared with 27.6% in the no treatment group [O.R. 0.06 (0.01-0.30)] and 25.9% in the aspirin group [O.R. 0.07 (0.01-0.38)]. Women on aspirin, who developed preeclampsia, delivered later in pregnancy [35.4 (33-38.2) weeks] than preeclamptic women on no treatment [29 (22-38) weeks], p = 0.04. There was a trend to reduced perinatal deaths in the heparin + antiplatelet drug group, [2.3%; O.R., 0.17 (0.02-1.4)] and in the aspirin group [0%, O.R., 0.13 (0.01-2.3)] compared with 11.7% perinatal deaths in the no treatment group. Heparin with anti-platelet drugs may prevent preeclampsia in high risk women with renal disease. Further investigation in a randomized trial is indicated.

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