[Changes in hemostasis and fibrinolysis in gestational diabetes]

J Kvasnicka, J Bendl, J Zivný, A Umlaufová, H Maslowská
Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských 1996 February 14, 135 (4): 106-10

BACKGROUND: The most serious complication of diabetes is the progressive development of vascular changes in which impaired hemocoagulation and fibrinolysis participate. The latter were investigated in diabetes type 1 and 2, but les is known about them in gestational diabetes (GDM). The objective of the submitted work was to assess wither these disorders occur also during GDM and to compare the assessed changes of haemostasis and fibrinolysis with findings in a) non-pregnant healthy controls (n = 58), b) healthy pregnant women (n = 41) and c) groups of pregnant women with impaired haemostasis during gestation/gestational hemorrhage (n = 15), preeclampsia (n = 22), varicosities (n = 15) and dead foetus syndrome (n = 16), but normal carbohydrate metabolism. The changes in GDM were moreover compared with changes found in diabetes type 1 and 2.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In pregnant women with GDM (n = 29) which was diagnosed according to WHO criteria the following parameters were examined: number of thrombocytes, APTT, fibrinogen-Fbg (according to Clauss), euglobulin fibrinolysis-ECLT, t-PA concentration, PAI-I (Coaliza, Kabi) and by microturbidimetry the concentration of plasma proteins/orosomucoid (ORM), alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT), prealbumin (PREA), transferrin (TRF) and alpha-2-macroglobulin (A2M). In patients with GDM a high Fbg level was found (4.51 +/- 0.98 g/l, p<0.01) not only as compared with Fbg in non-pregnant women (2.42 +/- 0.40 g/l), Fbg in healthy pregnant women (3.63 +/- 0.70 g/l) but also Fg in other patient groups with a pathological pregnancy. In pregnant women with GDM a reduced fibrinolytic activity - ECLT (464 +/- 98 min., p<0.01) was observed as compared with the finding in non-pregnant women (273 +/- 98 min.) but also in healthy pregnant women (303 +/- 106 min.). Another important deviation as compared with findings in healthy pregnant women in GDM is the reduced value of two proteinase inhibitors: A2M (2.04 +/- 0.59 g/l vs. 2.89 +/- 0.90 g/l, p < 0.01) and A1AT (2.98 +/- 0.80 g/l vs. 3.96 +/- 0.85 g/l, p < 0.01). The rise of t-PA (Ag), PAI-1 (Ag), fibrinogen and reduction of fibrinolytic activity (longer ECLT) made the changes the haemostasis and fibrinolysis in GDM closer to findings in DM type 2 than type 1.

CONCLUSIONS: In GDM a higher thrombophilia was found (higher Fbg, longer ECLT) than in other groups of pregnant women. Another pathological finding is the reduced A2M level (proteinase inhibitor but also of PDGF and interleukins) and A1AT (inhibitor of leucocytic proteinases). The authors assume that these deviations favour the development of possible vascular changes in GDM and possibly also diabetic foetopathy (reduced A2M).


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