JOURNAL ARTICLE

Renovascular hypertension resulting from nonspecific aortoarteritis in children: midterm results of percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty and predictors of restenosis

S Sharma, D Thatai, A Saxena, S S Kothari, S Guleria, M Rajani
AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology 1996, 166 (1): 157-62
8571868

OBJECTIVE: Nonspecific aortoarteritis is a major cause of renovascular hypertension in children. Stenosis of the renal artery is usually long and begins at the origin of that artery. We retrospectively studied the midterm results of angioplasty during treatment and defined the predictors of restenosis in 40 stenoses in 24 children.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients had clinically inactive disease and hemodynamically significant stenosis causing hypertension. Midterm results were analyzed by the life table method. The effect of clinical, angiographic, and technical factors on the restenosis rate was tested by the Kaplan-Meir survival method.

RESULTS: Technical success was obtained without complications in 38 (95%) of the lesions in 22 (92%) of the patients. The stenosis decreased from 89 +/- 7% to 11 +/- 12%, the pressure gradient fell from 97 +/- 27 to 10 +/- 10 mm Hg, and blood pressure decreased from 174 +/- 14/112 +/- 11 to 141 +/- 13/88 +/- 11 mm Hg (p < .001). Clinical benefit was seen in all patients with technically successful angioplasty. During the follow-up period (33 +/- 22 months), restenosis was seen in eight lesions (20%). The predicted cumulative patency rate at 5 years was 71%. Adverse effects on the rate of restenosis were associated with male sex (p = .04), stenosis beginning at the origin of the renal artery (p = .01), and more than 20% residual stenosis after angioplasty (p = .02).

CONCLUSION: Our results show that hypertension in children with renal artery stenosis caused by nonspecific aortoateritis can be safely treated by renal angioplasty with excellent midterm results. A long stenosis beginning at the origin of the artery predisposes to restenosis, but repeat dilatation often produces lasting benefit.

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