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JOURNAL ARTICLE

IL-10 cooperates with TNF-alpha to activate HIV-1 from latently and acutely infected cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage

A Finnegan, K A Roebuck, B E Nakai, D S Gu, M F Rabbi, S Song, A L Landay
Journal of Immunology 1996 January 15, 156 (2): 841-51
8543841
IL-10 is elevated in HIV-1-infected individuals and has been implicated in disease progression. In this study, we investigated the effects of IL-10 on the activation of HIV-1 from infected monocytes and macrophages. Although IL-10 alone did not induce HIV-1 replication, in the presence of TNF-alpha, IL-10 markedly enhanced virion production from a chronically infected promonocytic cell line (U1) and in acutely infected monocyte-derived macrophages. Neutralizing mAbs to IL-10 and TNF-alpha indicated that both cytokines were essential for the induction and were required to generate a synergistic increase in virus expression. The effects of the two cytokines were distinguishable functionally since pretreatment with TNF-alpha attenuated the cytokine cooperativity, while pretreatment with IL-10 potentiated their cooperativity, suggesting that IL-10 and TNF-alpha play different roles in the activation of virus. Northern blot analysis as well as Ab blocking and cytokine secretion studies indicated that the induction of either endogenous TNF-alpha or IL-10 was not involved in the cooperativity, nor was an up-regulation of TNF-alpha receptors. In combination with TNF-alpha, IL-10 stimulated activating protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B binding activities and cooperated to increase HIV-1 steady-state mRNA levels and enhance long terminal repeat-directed transcription through activation of the NF-kappa B binding sites, suggesting the IL-10 effect occurs at least in part at the transcriptional level. These results indicate that IL-10, in addition to down-regulating the cellular immune response to HIV-1, may also play a role in TNF-alpha-mediated activation of HIV-1 replication in the monocyte/macrophage lineage.

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