CSF and serum brain-specific creatine kinase isoenzyme (CK-BB), neuron-specific enolase (NSE) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) as prognostic markers for hypoxic brain injury after cardiac arrest in man

J Kärkelä, E Bock, S Kaukinen
Journal of the Neurological Sciences 1993, 116 (1): 100-9
Creatine kinase (CK) and its brain-specific isoenzyme (CK-BB), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and the ions sodium, potassium, chloride and calcium were measured both in CSF and serum and inorganic phosphate in CSF in order to assess their prognostic value in total brain ischemia due to cardiac arrest. The samples were collected at 4, 28 and 76 h after resuscitation. Twenty consecutive patients resuscitated from ventricular fibrillation or asystole were included in the study. Nine of the patients recovered consciousness (recovered) but eleven remained comatose (disabled). The follow-up period was 2 years after which only one patient was still alive. The earliest statistically significant differences between neurologically recovered and disabled patient groups were seen in CSF inorganic phosphate (P = 0.030) already at 4 h and CK-BB (P = 0.046) and NSE (P = 0.020) activity at 28 h. Later, at 76 h after the resuscitation CSF NSE differentiated the groups most clearly (P = 0.014). The values were higher in the disabled patients. A negative correlation between CSF parameters and Glasgow Coma scores was also seen at these timepoints. Statistically significant differences between the groups were seen in both CSF and blood pCO2, pO2, base excess (BE) and actual bicarbonate (HCO3-). CSF or serum NCAM has no prognostic value in anoxic-ischemic coma. The results suggest that in CSF CK-BB and NSE are useful prognostic indicators of hypoxic brain injury when measured 28-76 h after cardiac arrest whereas blood samples have no prognostic value.

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