EMIT-d.a.u. monoclonal amphetamine/methamphetamine assay. I. Stereoselectivity and clinical evaluation

A Poklis, K V Hall, R A Eddleton, R L Fitzgerald, J J Saady, S C Bogema
Forensic Science International 1993, 59 (1): 49-62
The stereoselectivity, cross-reactivity and clinical performance of the EMIT-d.a.u. monoclonal amphetamine(A)/methamphetamine (MA) immunoassay (EM) were evaluated. The cut-off calibrator of the assay was 1000 ng/ml S(+)MA. Analysis of drug-added urines and 72 clinical specimens demonstrated a cut-off for S(+)-amphetamine of approximately 400 ng/ml. The stereoisomeric selectivity of the assay was determined in a concentration vs. response manner by adding pure S(+) or R(-)isomers of A and MA, to drug free urine. The EM assay demonstrated a high selectivity for S(+)-isomers with only one of 16 urine specimens collected following excessive use of nasal inhalers yielding a positive result. This specimen contained 6000 ng/ml R(-)MA. Five-hundred clinical urine specimens were simultaneously analyzed for A or MA by the EM and EMIT-d.a.u. polyclonal (EP) amphetamine assay with 131 positive results confirmed by GC/MS. In five specimens negative by EM while positive by EP, MA was present at concentrations below the 1000 ng/ml cut-off. Two ME false positive results were apparently caused by chlorpromazine (CPZ) metabolites. A study of other phenothiazines or their metabolites gave no false positive results. The possible cross reactivity of the EM assay was further studied for phenyl-isopropylamine analogs or drugs previously reported to react with the EP assay. The EM assay showed much less cross-reactivity than EP to all drugs tested.

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