Normal limits of knee angle in white children—genu varum and genu valgum

C H Heath, L T Staheli
Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics 1993, 13 (2): 259-62
Knee angle and intermalleolar (IM) or intercondylar (IC) distance were measured in 196 white children aged 6 months to 11 years to establish normal limits of tibiofemoral angle. Children were maximally bowlegged at age 6 months and progressed toward approximately neutral knee angles (0 degree) by age 18 months. Greatest mean knock knee of 8 degrees was observed at age 4 years, followed by a gradual decrease to a mean of < 6 degrees at 11 years. Normal children aged 2-11 years had knock knee up to 12 degrees and intermalleolar distance up to 8 cm; the existence of bowlegs after age 2 years was abnormal.

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