Neuromodulation of sacral nerves for incontinence and voiding dysfunctions. Clinical results and complications

H E Dijkema, E H Weil, P T Mijs, R A Janknegt
European Urology 1993, 24 (1): 72-6
Neuromodulation of sacral nerves is a new form of treatment for patients with refractory voiding dysfunctions such as incontinence, retention and chronic pelvic pain. Electrical stimulation of S3 activates the pelvic floor and modulates innervation of the bladder, sphincter and pelvic floor, restoring the balance and coordination in sacral reflexes. 19 of 23 patients with an implanted neuroprosthesis for neuromodulation have a more than 50% improvement in their main symptoms after a median follow-up of 12 months. In urge-incontinent patients the number of leakings decreased from 7.4 to 1.5/day, and the functional capacity increased from 135 to 227 ml.

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