[Changes in the spectrum of the diseases in patients hospitalized with HIV infection]

V Soriano, E Valencia, A Alba, F Laguna, V Moreno, J C Alberdi, J García-Samaniego, J González-Lahoz
Medicina Clínica 1993 December 4, 101 (19): 736-40

BACKGROUND: Infections in subjects with HIV-1 infection are a frequent cause of hospital admission. Knowledge of the entities which most often motivate hospitalization may aid in designing the most appropriate diagnostic and prophylactic strategies. The causes of hospital admission in individuals with risk practices for HIV-1 infection attended in a Department of Infectious Diseases in Madrid over a period of 4 years were analyzed.

METHODS: The records of the patients admitted from 1989 to 1992 were retrospectively reviewed. The principal and associated diagnoses which led to hospitalization were considered. The admissions of the two years were compared.

RESULTS: Bacterial pneumonias were the principal cause of hospitalization in the 2 years studied. Forty-five percent of the infections leading to hospital admission were not included among those defining AIDS. Tuberculosis was the most frequent opportunistic infection. Admissions due to pulmonary pneumocystosis, tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, esophageal candidiasis and Kaposi's sarcoma decreased from 1989-1992. To the contrary, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection and systemic infection by cytomegalovirus significantly increased over the same period. The incidence of other diseases such as endocarditis or leishmaniasis remained stable. More than half of the diseases were diagnosed in association with another entity during the same admission. Likewise, an increase in atypical forms of infections thus making diagnosis and treatment more difficult was observed. The first cases of multiresistant tuberculosis, all of rapidly fatal evolution, were identified in 1992. Mean hospital stay increased 30% and the rate of mortality was of 9% in 1989 and rose to 20% in 1992.

CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of infections which led to hospital admission of patients with HIV-1 infection has significantly modified over the last 4 years being related with the generalization of prophylactic medication for some opportunistic infections, the improvement of certain diagnostic techniques and more frequent ambulatory treatment of some diseases. The mean length of stay and hospital mortality have increased in the HIV+ population.

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