Chemical disinfection of duck hepatitis B virus: a model for inactivation of infectivity of hepatitis B virus

K N Tsiquaye, J Barnard
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 1993, 32 (2): 313-23
The susceptibility of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) to the virucidal effects of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) was compared to hepatitis B virus (HBV) with the aim of using the duck as a model for studying HBV disinfection. Using viral DNA polymerase (DNAP) as a target, inhibition of DNAP activity by chlorine disinfectants was found to be concentration-dependent but independent of contact time. Two minute exposure of minimal effective concentrations of sodium hypochlorite (domestic bleach: 3600 ppm and industrial bleach: 3180 ppm) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (3000 ppm available chlorine) to DHBV- and HBV-rich plasma totally inhibited DNA polymerase activity. DHBV particles in DHBV-carrier duck plasma (10(4.5) ID50/mL) were treated with these concentrations and inoculated intravenously into 18 one-day old ducklings (six animals/disinfectant). Analysis of plasma (0, 7 and 14 days post-infection) and post-mortem liver (14 days post-infection) by DNA hybridization techniques showed that DHBV DNA was undetectable in samples from all animals inoculated with disinfected virus particles. However, post-inoculation plasma and liver of 18 of 18 control ducklings inoculated with untreated virions were positive for DHBV DNA. These results show for the first time that total inhibition in vitro of hepadnavirus DNA polymerase activity by chemical disinfectants is predictive of inactivation of infectivity in vivo.

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