Risk factors and clinical relevance of nosocomial maxillary sinusitis in the critically ill

J J Rouby, P Laurent, M Gosnach, E Cambau, G Lamas, A Zouaoui, J L Leguillou, L Bodin, T D Khac, C Marsault
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 1994, 150 (3): 776-83
The incidence of infectious maxillary sinusitis (IMS) and its clinical relevance was prospectively studied in 162 consecutive critically ill patients who were mechanically ventilated for a period longer than 7 d. All had a paranasal computed tomographic (CT) scan within 48 h of admission and were divided into three groups according to the radiologic aspect of their maxillary sinuses: Group 1 = normal maxillary sinuses (n = 40), Group 2 = maxillary mucosal thickening (n = 26), Group 3 = radiologic maxillary sinusitis (RMS) defined as the presence of an air fluid level and/or opacification of maxillary sinuses (n = 96). Group 1 patients were randomized between nasal and oral endotracheal intubation with a gastric intubation performed via the same route and had a second paranasal CT scan 7 d later. Endotracheal and gastric tubes were left in their original position in Group 2 patients and a second paranasal CT scan was performed 7 d later. All patients of Group 3 underwent a transnasal puncture for bacteriologic analysis of maxillary sinus content. Forty-five spontaneously breathing patients served as a control group. In all patients with RMS, the occurrence of bronchopneumonia (BPN) was prospectively assessed for 7 d following the initial CT scan. Upon inclusion, only 25% of the patients had normal maxillary sinuses whereas all patients in the control group had normal paranasal CT scans. After 7 d, 46% of Group 2 patients had evidence of RMS. Risk factors for RMS were nasal placement and duration of endotracheal and gastric intubation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

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