The effect of single bolus dose of esmolol for controlling the tachycardia and hypertension during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation

L Yuan, Y Y Chia, K T Jan, C S Chen, C H Wang, L H Haung, L Kang
Acta Anaesthesiologica Sinica 1994, 32 (3): 147-52
Tachycardia and hypertension usually accompany laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. This response is undesirable, especially in patients with cardiovascular or intracranial diseases. Esmolol is a cardioselective, ultrashort-acting beta adrenergic blocking agent with a very short half-life. The efficacy of bolus dose of esmolol in blunting hemodynamic responses during laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation was evaluated. 45 patients (15 in each group) of ASA physical status I and II scheduled for elective non-cardiac surgery were included in this randomized, placebo-controlled study. At time zero, the study preparation (placebo, 100 or 200 mg of esmolol) was administered intravenously, followed by thiopentone 5 mg/kg and succinylcholine 1.5 mg/kg for induction. Tracheal intubation was performed 2 minutes after time zero. Anesthesia was maintained with 50% nitrous oxide and 1.0 MAC halothane in oxygen, and vecuronium 0.08 mg/kg. Heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded every minute for 10 minutes. To compare with the placebo group, there was a significant decrease in either HR or SBP in 200 mg group in the 8 minutes course after intubation (p < 0.05). There was a significant decrease in HR in the 100 mg group at the 3rd, 4th, and 5th minutes when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.05). The differences in SBP between the 100 mg group and placebo group were significant at the 3rd and 4th minutes (p < 0.05). Both bolus dosages of esmolol could effectively attenuate the tachycardia and hypertension produced by laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation. Furthermore, esmolol 200 mg presented a better hemodynamic stability than esmolol 100 mg during induction of anesthesia.

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