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Cholelithiasis in pediatric cardiac transplant patients on cyclosporine.

From June 1984 to June 1993, symptomatic chlolethiasis was observed in six (6.7%) of 90 cases of pediatric heart or heart-lung transplants at the author's institution. The incidence of cholelithiasis for all children under 16 years of age is estimated to be less than 1%. Previously, information on cholelithiasis in pediatric transplant patients on cyclosporine therapy had been limited. Studies concerning the incidence of gallstones in adult kidney and cardiac transplant patients have shown that there is an increase associated with cyclosporine, possibly related to elevated levels and hepatoxicity. Five patients underwent uneventful cholecystectomy. There was only one death, which occurred after emergency cholecysostomy tube placement for biliary sepsis. If indicated, biliary tract surgery can be performed safely in cardiac transplant patients. The authors report on their experience with symptomatic cholelithiasis in pediatric cardiac transplant patients and review the current literature on the hepatotoxic effects of cyclosporine.

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