Lipoprotein pattern and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity in children with Alagille syndrome

F Gottrand, V Clavey, J C Fruchart, J P Farriaux
Atherosclerosis 1995, 115 (2): 233-41
Alagille syndrome is frequently associated with hyperlipidemia and xanthoma. The aim of the study was to assess the lipid profile (plasma lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo)) and lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) activity, with and without treatment with cholestyramine in Alagille syndrome. Five children (mean age = 6 +/- 4 years) with Alagille syndrome were studied at two different times while receiving no treatment, and while receiving cholestyramine. They were compared with 12 normal controls, who were not different from patients for age and sex. In Alagille syndrome, total serum cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipids were elevated compared with the controls (P < 0.008). VLDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-triglycerides, LDL-triglycerides and VLDL-phospholipids were higher, whereas HDL-cholesterol was lower than controls (P < 0.03). Apo B, CIII, E and lipoprotein particles Lp AI were higher (P < 0.001), whereas Lp AI:AII was lower than controls (P < 0.03). Lipoprotein-X was present in the 5 children with Alagille syndrome and explained in part the elevation of plasma cholesterol, phospholipids, and apo CIII. LCAT activity was decreased (P < 0.01) and might cause some abnormalities of HDL with lower cholesterol, higher triglycerides, apo E and apo CIII contents than controls, and abnormalities of VLDL and LDL with higher cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids and apo B contents than controls. Some of the risk factors of atherosclerosis were found in Alagille syndrome, namely high levels of plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apo B, apo B/apo AI. Treatment with cholestyramine resulted in a few modifications to the lipid profile, while lipoprotein-X and the decrease of LCAT activity persisted.

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