JOURNAL ARTICLE
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Appraisal of intraoperative ultrasonography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

Surgery 1995 September
BACKGROUND: The usefulness of intraoperative ultrasonography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) has yet to be evaluated fully.

METHODS: In 50 patients who underwent LC, the intraoperative ultrasonography findings were compared with those of preoperative ultrasonography, intraoperative cholangiography, and histology, and then its usefulness for examining anatomic relationships in the hepatoduodenal ligament, detecting bile duct stones, diagnosing gallbladder polyps and abnormally thickened walls, and determining the propriety of LC was appraised.

RESULTS: The preoperative ultrasonography diagnoses were gallstones in 38 patients, polyps in 10, and cancer and adenomyomatosis in one each. In four patients endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed bile duct stones. In all 50 patients intraoperative ultrasonography was useful for examining the anatomic relationships between the bile duct and vessels, such as the portal vein and hepatic artery, and showing the presence or absence of bile duct stones. On the basis of the intraoperative ultrasonography findings, gallstones were diagnosed in 38 patients, in five of whom bile duct stones were shown clearly, cholesterol polyps in eight, early-stage cancer or adenoma in two, and adenomyomatosis in two, and subsequently LC was performed. Histologic diagnoses of cholesterol polyps were made in eight of ten patients with polyps, and intramucosal cancer and an inflammatory polyp in one each. In one patient with a preoperative diagnosis of cancer the apparently elevated flat lesion was found to be partial thickening of the gallbladder wall, which was diagnosed as adenomyomatosis, and LC was chosen as the operative procedure.

CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative ultrasonography during LC is useful for detecting bile duct stones, diagnosing gallbladder polyps and abnormally thickened walls, and deciding whether LC is adequate for resection of the gallbladder.

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